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What is a rock made of?
more than one material
namely, one or more minerals and sometimes organic (once-living) particles
What is a mineral made of?
only one material
What is a fossil?
preserved remains of an organism that lived long ago
sometimes it is just its imprint that is preserved
What is an igneous rock?
a rock formed from molten matter that has cooled and hardened
this can happen either above ground or deep under ground
What is a metamorphic rock?
a mixed-up rock, made of minerals, igneous rock, sedementary rock, and other metamorphic rock
made inside the earth under extreme heat and pressure
What is a sedimentary rock?
rock made from sediment deposited in layers and pressed together for a long time to form a solid
the sediment can be minerals, pieces of other rocks, or even organic material
What is petrification?
the process of making a fossil
What is luster?
the ability of a rock to reflect light
two types are metallic and non-metallic
What is hardness?
a mineral's resistance to scratching
What is Moh's Scale of Hardness?
a test used to rank the hardness of a mineral on a scale of 1 to 10
1 is the softest, 10 is the hardest
Describe metallic luster.
dark in color and always opaque
Describe non-metallic luster
light in color
can be described as glossy, brilliant, pearly, silky, greasy, or dull
What is an atom?
the smallest particle of matter
What are the elements?
100 substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary chemical means
What do you learn from the luster test?
What the mineral looks like.
What do you learn from the streak test?
what the real color is
What do you learn from the acid test?
whether or not calcite is present