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the amount of heat needed to raise the temp. of 1 kg of water by 1°C
1 kcal = ___ J
1 cal = ___ J
the heat required to raise or lower the temp of 1 kg of a substance by 1°C
The amount of heat required to change the temp of a substance by a temp difference...
Latent heat for a solid-liquid phase change
latent heat of fusion (L
Latent heat for a liquid-gas phase change
Latent heat of vaporization (L
Ice → Water
Qf > 0
Ice ← Water
Qf < 0
Water → Gas
Qv > 0
Water ← Gas
Qv < 0
What is "A"?
What is "B"?
Phase Change = L
What is "C"?
What is "D"?
Phase Change = L
What is "E"?
Where is the boiling point?
Where is the melting point?
Three mechanisms of heat transfer:
heat transfer due to direct contact of objects that have different temps
heat transfer due to mass movement of gas or liquid molecules
heat transfered by electromagnetic radiation between objects that have different temperatures
good conductor of heat
poor conductor of heat
The 1st law of thermodynamics
the 1st law is a statement of conservation of energy in terms of thermodynamic variables ΔU, Q &W
change in the systems internal energy
HEAT ENGINE: arrows go ___ and ___
down and out
THERMAL PUMP: arrows go ___ and ___
up and in
The 2nd law of thermodynamics
Certain processes do not take place even though they may be consistent with the first law
- heat will not flow spontaneously from a cooler body to a warmer body
- in a thermal cycle, heat energy cannot be completely transformed into mechanical work.
- The work output is always less than the energy input.
The Carnot Cycle
ε = 1- (Tc/Th)
Temp must be in K
Physics Chapters 11 & 12