Sociology Ch14

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akamins03
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52493
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Sociology Ch14
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2010-12-01 15:40:00
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Education health medicine
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chapter review
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  1. What is Education:
    It is the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills and cultural norms and values.
  2. What is Schooling:
    It Is formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers.
  3. What year were the mandatory education laws requiring children to attend school.
    1918, and until 16 or 8th grade.
  4. Thomas Jefferson- new nation must have literate people in order for the new nations.......
    democratic foundation to work.
  5. z
  6. Education: Is the major social institution for transmitting knowledge and skills, as well as teaching cultural norms and values.
    • -in preindustrial societies, education occurs informally within the family.
    • -industrial societies develop formal systems of schooling to educate their children.
  7. The structural-Functional approach :
    Highlights major functions of schooling, including socialization, cultural innovation, social integration, and the placement of people in the social hierarchy.

    -latent functions of schooling include providing child care and building social networks.
  8. The symbolic-interaction approach:
    helps us understand that stereotypes can have important consequences for how people act. If students think they are academically superior, they are likely to preform better; students who think they are inferior are likely to preform less well.
  9. links schooling to the hierarchy involving class, race, and gender.
    -formal education serves as a means of generating comformity to produce obedient adult workers.

    -standardized achievement tests have been criticized as culturally biased tools that may lead to labeling less privileged students as personally deficient.

    -broke ass people go to public school, well-to-dos go to private schools.
    Social-Conflict approach:
  10. Tracking:
    assigning students to different types of educational programs.
  11. functional illiteracy:
    a lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living.
  12. Schooling people with disabilities:
    -children with mental or physical disabilities have historically been schooled in special classes.
  13. -Mainstreaming affords them broader opportunities and exposes all children to a more diverse student population.
  14. Problems in the schools:
    -Violence permeates many schools, especially in poor neighborhoods.

    -The bureaucratic character of schools fosters high dropout rates and student passivity.

    -Declining academic standards are reflected in today's lower average scores on achievement tests, the functional illiteracy of a significant proportion of high school graduates, and grade inflation.
  15. The School choice movement seeks to make schools more accountable to the public. Innovative options include:
    • -Magnet schools
    • -schooling for profit
    • -charter schools
  16. Adult Education:
    Adults represent a growing proportion of students in the united states.
  17. Home schooling:
    -Original pioneers of home schooling did not believe in public schools for strong religous values.

    -Home schooling advocates today point to the poor performance of public schools.
  18. The Teacher Shortage:
    -More than 300,000 teaching vacancies exist in the united states each year due to low salaries, frustration, retirements, and rising enrollment and class size.

    -To address this shortage, many schools districts are recruiting teachers from abroad.
  19. Health:
    Is a social issue because personal well-being depends on a society's level of technology and its distribution of resources. A society's culture shapes definitions of health.
  20. Medicine:
    the social institution that focuses on fighting disease and improving health
  21. Health:
    a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.
  22. Health varies over time:
    With industrialization, health improved dramatically -in western europe and northern america in the nineteenth century.

    -a century ago, infectious diseases were leading killers; today, most people in the U.S. die in old age of chronic illnesses such as heart disease, cancer, or stroke.
  23. Health varies around the world:
    -Poor nations suffer from inadequate sanitation, hunger, and other problems linked to poverty.

    -life expectancy in low-income nations is about twenty-five years less than in the U.S; in the poorest nations, half the children do not survive to adulthood.
  24. Health Facts:
    -More than three-fourths of U.S. children born today will live to at least age sixty-five.

    -throughout the life course, women have better health than men, and people of high social position enjoy better health than the poor.
  25. Current Health issues in the U.S. include;
    -cigarette smoking, which is the greatest preventable cause of death

    -eating disorders and obesity

    -the increase in sexually transmitted diseases

    -ethical dilemmas associated with advancing medical technology and the right to die.
  26. The medical establishment:
    -Health care was a family concern but with industrialization became the responsibility of trained specialists.

    -The model of scientific medicine is the foundation of the U.S. medical establishment.
  27. Paying for medical care; a global survey:
    -socialist societies define medical care as a right; governments offer basic care equally to everyone.

    -Capitalist societies view medical care as a commodity to be purchased, although most capitalist governments help pay for medical care through socialized medicine or national health insurance.
  28. Paying for medical care: The United States:
    U.S, with a direct-free system, is the only high-income nation with no comprehensive medical care program.
  29. 47 million U.S citizens do not have
    Health insurance.
  30. Structural- functional approach:
    Considers illness dysfunctional because it reduces people's abilities to preform their roles.

    - the sick roll excuses the ill person from routine social responsibilities.

    -The physician's role is to use specialized knowledge to take charge of the patient's recovery.
  31. Symbolic-interaction approach:
    Investigates how health and medical care are socially constructed by people in everyday interaction:

    -Our response to illness is not always based on medical facts.

    -How people define a medical situation may affect how they feel.
  32. The social- conflict and Feminist Approaches:
    Focus on the unequal distribution of health and medical care. The criticize the U.S. medical establishment for

    • -its over-reliance on drugs and surgery.
    • -the dominance of the profit motive.
    • -overemphasis on the biological rather than the social causes of illness.
  33. Social Epidemology-
    the study of how health and diseases are distributed throughout a society's population.
  34. eating disorder;
    an intense form of dieting or other unhealthy method of weight control driven by the desire to be very thin
  35. euthanasia-
    assisting in the death of a person suffering from an incurable disease; also know as mercy killing
  36. Holistic Medicine:
    an approach to health care that emphasizes the prevention of illness and takes into account a person's entire physical and social environment.
  37. Socialized medicine-
    a medical care system in which the government owns and operates most medical facilities and employs most physicians.
  38. Direct-Fee system;
    a medical care system in which patients pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals.
  39. Health maintenance organization (HMO):
    an organization that provides comprehensive medical care to subscribers for a fixed fee.
  40. Sick role:
    Patterns of behavior defined as appropriate for people who are ill.

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