sponges. They are invertebrates that exhale through their OSCULUM. They have cells called spicules that give shape and form to sponges. Water enters them through layers of pores on their surface or skin layers.
Eumetazoans are different from parazoans because they have
Ctenophores have tentacles that help
bring food to their mouths. Their are tentacles can be sticky
Cnidarians have specialized cells on their tentacles which
stings into their pray and prevents them from escaping. These cells are called Cnidocytes.
Cnidarians have both a medusa and polyp form,
a mature polyp releases young medusa, and medusa makes larva and the larva become sessile poylps, with can either mature or bud off.
Protostome are eumetazoans, triploblastic,
have bilateral symmetry, and coelom
Protostomes are a clade, meaning they share a common ancestor
Protostome means that the mouth is formed first in the blastophore. Two major groups are called
lophotrochozoans and ecdysozoans. These two are not a clade.
Protostomes have spiral cleavages, an anterior (top or head) brain, and a
ventral nervous system
lophotrochozoans are Protostomes. They are the animal like annelids (worms) and Mollusks.
They have a lophophore ( a mouth that is horseshoe shaped, that helps with beating cilia that directs food into the mouth)
they have trochophore larva ( radial symm.) But the adult has bilateral symm.
Annelids are lophotrochozoans. They have
a lophophore and trochophore larva.
Annelids first evolved segmentation, and
coelom (fluid filled cavity which forms within the mesoderm) which gives their body a framework
Mollusks are Protostomes, that have a lophophore and trochophore larva,
They are the most species rich compared to other animals. They have specialized body planx (muscular foot), visceral mass (section for their internal organs) , and mantle (shell).
locotrochozoans are immoble as
adults, because they can move as medusa and larva forms
Ecdysozoans are Protostomes, they either can an outer covering either a cuticle or
exoskeleton. Ecdysozoans molt their outer coverings. Many do not have a trochophore larva phase. And they include the groups called arthropods (a rich and diverse species)
Arthropods are Protostomes. They have exoskeleton with
jointed appendages. Think of a lobster. These appendages can have different funtions like sensory or food gathering. Subgroups of Arthropods are crustacean, incests, myriapods, and arachnids
Crustaceans are Arthropods, examples would be
Insects are Arthropods, which is a large
Myriapods are Arthropods, an example would be
Mr. Centipede. eek!
Arachnids are Arthropods, eek! Even worst...
four pairs of legs...spiders
Deuterostomes are the largest in size and are usually high up on the food chain. Their blastophore first forms the
anus. They ALL have radial cleavage, and their endoskeleton is covered by soft tissues. Deuterostome groups are echinoderms, hemichordates, and chordates. Each group is a clade.
Echinoderms are deutorostomes. They have radial symmetry which is based on the number 5. They also have a water
vascular system (tubes, tubular foot, or reserviors). Their larva have bilateral symmetry. An example will be a sea Star
Echinoderm larva has what kind of symmetry compared to the adult?
Bilateral symmetry in Larva
Hemichordates are deutorostomes. They include the acorn worms. They have pharyngeal
slits, openings in the throat region.
Chordates are deutorostomes, and they break down into the groups urochordates,
cephalochordate, and vertebrates. Derived structures of chordates are a notochord (rod structure, embryonic backbone), dorsal hollow nerve cord (fluid space), and a tail that extends beyond the anus.
Urochordates are Chordates, an example would be a sea squirt,
They have water filtering through their pharyngeal slits.
Cephalochordates are chordates, it includes the lancelot. They use filter their food through their pharyngeal slits.
One characteristic about a lancelot is that it buries its body underground and above ground it does the filtering
Vertebrates are chordates, They have a notochord that becomes an endoskeleton made of cartilage or
bone(more rigid). They have skulls with large brains. Some evolutionary advances are a vertbrate jaw, cartilaginous skeleton, bondy fish, limbs, and amniotic eggs. Jawless vertebrates are like hagfish, lamprey. Cartilage fish include sharks. Limbs evolved from bony fins of bone fish. An amniotic egg can have extraembryonic membranes and happened in land adapted reptiles.
Jawless vertebrates are like hagfish, lamprey. Cartilage fish include
sharks. Limbs evolved from bony fins of bone
fish. An amniotic egg can
have extraembryonic membranes and happened in land adapted reptiles.
Annelids do not have lophophores, which are cilia
beating mouth openings
Homeostasis means to maintain a stable and healthy internal environment. In regulating the internal enviornment, by using ECF ( extracellular
fluid) we do it by consuming glucose, and maintaining safe ph levels.
Regulatory Mechanism are
positive vs Negative feedback control, and feed forward information. Negative control is more used and effective than positive.
Negative feedback is kind of like a thermostat in an oven.
positive feedback is when a change occurs a similar change occurs to another characteristic
Feed-forward control is to measure disturbances and
compensate for them before the controlled variable deviates from the
Tissues are organized into the organs. Animal tissues include epithelial tissue, (ex. our skin), connective
tissue (located btw other tissue), muscle tissue (responsible for movement), and nervous tissue (makes up the brain spinal cord and nerves)
Epithelial cells covers the body surface, its cells are in sheets, it is continuously renewed, protects,
absorbs, secrets (glandular epithelium is specialized for secretion)
glandular epithelium is specialized for
Connective tissues are located btw other tissue, they help join
tissues, supports, cushions, and loosely packed cells surround by extracellular matrix. This type of tissue include collegen and cartilage
Muscle tissue are responsible for body movements, contracts and
relaxes, contractile proteins actin and myosin. They have straited pattern. Skeletal muscle can move, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle are found int contractive organs. Not arranged in an order or pattern. Cardiac muscle is patterned and has limited cells.
Nervous Tissue makes up the brain spinal cord and nerves. it senses stimuli
(external or internal change in environment.) generates and transmits nerve impulses, cells, neurons and glial cell (are smaller cells and are interspersed within the neurons). They support the neuron
Tissues are organized into organs. Organs are organized into
Temperature range of life is usually around 0 degree celcius, the metabolic rate=CO2 use or CO2 production/time, also Metabolic
heat, in cellular respiration where glucose is broken down
Ectotherm gives off heat, which is good around warm weather, and endotherms
keep it within to maintain a stable body heat, which is better around colder climates. Heteroterms can do both, for example bats. Most animals are ectotherms, but both use behavioral regulation to maintain their need or giving off of heat. For example going into the sun or out of the sun
The Q10 temperature coefficient is a measure of the rate of change of a biological or chemical system as a consequence of increasing the temperature by 10
it measure temperature sensitivity and usually is between 2x-3x.
Mechanisms of heat exchange. Radiation (giving off), conduction (physical contact transfer of heat), convection (air
around you moves when heat transfered), and evaporation (heat is loss through the breaking of hydrogen bonds.)
Adaptations of endotherms are heat disposal (sweating), heat retention(fat, fur, etc), size and
metabolic rate, body form and metabolic rate, brown fat molecules that uses ATP energy for an electron transport in heat retention.
In an endotherm as enviornment temperature decreases the metabolic rate would
increase to maintain temperature.
Passive Transport through channel and carrier protein move with their gradient, not requireing ATP, for example a K+ channel or a
Glucose carrier(carrier protein), and water channel called aquaporins in plants. Passive transport is also called facilitated diffusion.
Osmosis, is where water moves from high to low
hypertonic solution causes plasmolyzed, isotonic solution is flaccid, and hypotonic sulition causes turgid shape. Plants like to be turgic.
Water potential (psi) = Pressure Potential (psi-p) + solute potential (psi-s), where solute potential is
negative. If water potential is zero there is no movement of water or solutes.
Active transport occurs against the gradient, and with H+
pumps. A pump moves something against its gradient, where they are setting up a hydrogen ion gradient. A proton pump moves against gradient. Symport protein move H+ and also attracts Cl-.
Xylem moves water from rootes and up into the
stems and leaves. The cells that contribute to xylem are dead cell walls that create tubes. These are simply tubes full of water. Xylem does not collapse because of lignin in cells.
Transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism is where water molecules are loss through stomata, then the hydrogen
bonding of watermolecules keeps them attached thoruh xylem, the pressure influences the direction of watter. TRANspiration creates - pressure
Translocation, where their is a source-to-sink transport(where mineral are sent to lower part), phloem loading and unloading (where an increase in concentration creates
pressure and water moves into the phloem by osmosis), pressure flow or bulk flow (movement of large sugar molecules)
Guard Cells control transpiration in plants. They are the two shapes to the
stomata. When closed K+, CL- enter then H20 moves in by osmosis when guard cells are turgid the stomata opens and H20, K+, and Cl- exit ...
Animals exchange gas through specialized respiratory system. In plants the leaves exchange gas for photosynthesis, in
roots, stems, and leaves cellular respiration occurs and CO2 is given off. In the Stem, lentiel an area of very loose cells where air cand exit and enter. The alveoli where animals have this to help breath
Purpose of food is for, cellular fuiel and organic building material. Carbon skelton is what is needed in order to survive because we
cannot make them ourselves, we require molecules to obtain.
Majority of food molecules are carbohydrates (monosaccharides), fats(glycerol and fatty acids), and Protein..
Some carbohydrates are stored as glycogin, fats serve as building blocks for new material but CANNOT be converted to glucose. Protein are the purines and pyrimindines.
Essential nutrients that we can't make are amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals.
Amino acids whether complete or incomplete like tryptophan, methionine, valine, threonine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, and lysine.
Amino acids whether complete or incomplete like tryptophan, methionine,
valine, threonine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, and lysine.
Complete proteins are like meat, and incomplete are like veggies.
Essential fatty acids are poly saturated polychains, like linoleni and linoleic acid and
their derivatices, like nuts and oily fish
Fat soluble vitamins include A, D, E, but too much A can kill, Water soluble
vitamins are B-Complex, and C, both must be comsumed everyday.
Minerals includes essential inorganic
Vitamin C deficiency causes
Scurvy, is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of collagen in humans
Vitamin D Deficiency causes
Rickets, is a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, orphosphate. It leads to softening and weakening of the bones.
Mechanical digestion makes food
smaller, while chemical digestion catalyzes by enzymes and breaks chemical bonds down so essential minerals are released. Absorption of nutrients are taken across plasma membrane, and elimination of alot of cellulose out of the body.
Absorption of nutrients are taken across plasma membrane, and elimination of alot of cellulose
out of the body.
Extracellular digestion, gastrovascular cavity is a one way out one way in type of digestion...Tubular
Gut is a distinct end of mouth and anus.
In a worm the pharynx is usedto break down material, the intestines
for chemically breaking down or absorbing, since it has a large surface area for more epithial cells. Through these cells they can excrete enzymes and absorb.
In the Large intestines absorbs
Sugar transport in phloem is from regions of synthesis to