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Functions of the (anterior or posterior) vertebrae include: weight bearing, shock absorpion, allow motions of the spinal column and trunk in all cardinal planes, and protection of anterior aspect of spinal cord.
Functions of the (anterior or posterior) portion of the vertebrae include the following: guides and limits rotation, and elongated processes increase leverage of muscles that attach to spinal column.
___ cervical vertebrae
___ thoracic vertebrae
___ lumbar vertebrae
___ sacrum (fused)
___ coccyx (fused)
_____ _____: forms circle around the spinal cord, forms intervertebral foramen for exiting spinal nerves.
_______: attach the arch to vertebral body: between the body and the transverse process.
_______: posterior portion of arch, between the transverse process and spinous process.
- vertebral arch
Intervertebral discs are between each pair of vertebral bodies except ___ and ___/
C1 and C2
______ _______ ______: broad, dense, strong ligament that attaches to the anterior vertebral bodies and the annulus fibrosis from C2 to the sacrum.
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
_______ ________ _______: continuous band of tissue that extends along posterior aspect of vertebral bodies withing vertebral canal from C1 to the sacrum.
Posterior longitudinal ligaments
If facets align with sagittal plane, then primary motions are flexion and extension, which occurs mostly in the ____ spine.
If the facets align with the frontal plane, then primary motion is lateral flexion, which occurs mostly in the _____ spine.
The quadratus lumborum elicits lateral flexion of the trunk on the (same or opposite) and hip hike.
______ ______: acts like a girdle to flattent the abdominal wall and stabilize the lower spine.
_____ ____: unilateral contraction causes trunk rotation to the opposite side and bending to the same side.
bilateral contraction stabilizes trunk to allow hip motion.
_______ _______: unilateral contraction causes lateral flexion and rotation to the same side. Bilateral contraction causes flexion of the trunk.
What bones compose the acetabulum?
ilium, ischium, and pubis
_________: part of the pelvis where the ilium, ischium, and pubis intersect; socket of the hip joint into which the head of the femur sits.
Which three ligaments in the hip work together to limit extension and hyperextension?
iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligament
What three factors make the hip joint stable?
- bony configuration
- strong capsule
- reinforcing ligaments
Describe the open-pack postion of the hip joint:
moderate flexion, mid-range lateral rotation, slight abduction
Describe the closed pack position of the hip joint:
- end range extension
- medial rotation
- slight abduction
Anterior pelvic tilt causes hip ____ and lumbar ____.
Posterior pelvic tilt causes hip ____ and lumbar ____.
What are the joints of the knee?
The tibiofemoral joint has how many degrees of freedom?
Describe the open and close pack postions of the tibiofemoral joint.
- Open= 25 degrees or greater of flexion
- Closed= full extension
Describe the screw home mechanism of the tibiofemoral joint:
the femur rotates medially
The medial collateraql ligament stabilizes against (valgus or varus) forces and medial-lateral rotations.
The lateral collateral ligament limits (valgus or varus) motions.
What are the two functions of the patellofemoral joint?
- increase angle of application adn moment arm of quadriceps tendon
- protect quadriceps tendon during flexion
Increased Q angle of the quadriceps muscle causes increased (medial or lateral) pull on the patella?
The patella glides (proximally or distally) on femur during flexion, and recoils (proximally or distally) during extension.
- distally (close pack postion)
- proximally (open pack postion)
Name the four muscles of the quadriceps group:
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
For the rectus femoris, what postion would cause passive insufficiency?
- hip extension, knee flexion
- hip flexion, knee extension
What position would result in passive insufficiency of hamstrings?
- hip flextion, knee extension
- hip extension, knee flexion
______: provides final IR of femur (or ER of tibia) as knee reaches full extension.
_____ _____: insertion fo the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus.
how many degrees of freedom does the talocrural joint have?
1 (dorsiflexion, plantarflexion)
The lateral ligaments of the ankle prevent what?
What do the medial ligaments of the ankle prevent? Are they (stronger or weaker) than the lateral ligaments?
Descibe the open and closed pack postion of the talocrural joint?
- closed pack- dorsiflexion
- open pack- plantarflexion
The subtalar joint has how many degrees of freedom? In what planes and axises?
- pronation/suppination: frontal/ap
Describe the open and closed pack postion of the subtalar joint?
- open-pack postion: pronation
- closed-pack postion: suppination
pronation is dominated by (concentric or eccentric) contraction?
suppination is dominated by (concentric or eccentric contraction?
- eccentric= pronation
- concentric= suppination