Ch6:Learning NOTES

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ht2lvu
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Ch6:Learning NOTES
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2010-12-06 00:56:03
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psychology learning
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  1. behaviorism
    behavior is viewed in terms of learned responses
  2. types of behaviorism
    • 1. classical conditioning
    • 2. operant conditioning
  3. classical conditioning
    • Ivan Pavlov
    • learning through association
  4. steps in classical conditioning
    • neutral stimulus (NS)
    • unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    • unconditioned response (UCR)
    • conditioned stimulus (CS)
    • conditioned response (CR)
  5. neutral stimulus (NS)
    pairing another stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus
  6. unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    • stimulus that provokes a reflexive response
    • no learning
  7. unconditioned response (UCR)
    • the response to stimulus
    • no learning
  8. conditioned stimulus (CS)
    • previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response
    • acquisition stage: NS becomes UCR/UCS
    • learning through association
  9. conditioned response (CR)
    • response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus
    • learning through association
  10. Little Albert
    • John Watson
    • Rosalie Rayner
  11. spontaneous recovery
    • reappearance of an extinguished condition reponse ater a time delay
    • classical conditioning
  12. extinction
    • weakening of a conditioned reponse in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus
    • classical conditioning
  13. stimulus discrimination
    a change in responses to one stimulus but not to stimuli that are similar
  14. stimulus generalization
    the extension of a learned response to stimuli to the conditioned stimulus
  15. second or higher-order conditioning
    the process by which a neutral stimulus comes to act as a conditioned stimulus by being paired with another stimulus that already evokes a conditioned response
  16. trace conditioning
    • NS presented first, removed, then the UCS is presented
    • classical conditioning
  17. simultaneous conditioning
    • NS and UCS paired at the same time
    • classical conditioning
  18. backwards conditioning
    • UCS presented first and NS follows
    • classical conditioning
  19. counterconditioning
    • Mary Cover Jones
    • rabbit brought gradually closer to rabbit while engaged in favorite activites to get rid of fear of rabbits
  20. flooding
    • Joseph Wolpe
    • a behavioral fear-reduction technique based on the principles of classical conditioning
    • fear evoking stimuli (CS) are presented continuously in the absence of actual harm so that fear responses (CR) are extinguished
  21. systematic desensitization
    behavioral fear reduction technique where hiearchy of fear-evoking stimuli is presented while persone remains relaxed
  22. taste aversion conditioning
    • John Garcia & Robert Koelling
    • aversion to particular taste is conditioned only by pairing the taste with nausea
  23. operant conditioning
    • B.F. Skinner
    • learning via consequences
  24. Law of Effect
    • Edward Thorndike
    • any behavior that has good consequences will be repeated
    • any behavior that has bad consequences will tend to be avoided
  25. operant chamber
    • "skinner box"
    • animal press lever to recieve food
    • could set to control timing and the frequency of reinforcement
  26. continuous reinforcement
    • useful in teaching an organism a new response
    • reward every single time
  27. shaping
    • technique in which a new behavior is prodeced by reinforcing responses that are similar to desired response
    • come close to what you want
  28. intermittent (partial) reinforcement
    schedules of reinforcement
    • used to help provide extinction
    • don't reinforce everytime because begin to slack
  29. fixed ratio
    • paying factory workers on a piecework basis
    • high rate response
    • high extinction rate
    • always same
  30. variable ratio
    • never know when you'll make get reward
    • highest rate response
    • lowest extinction rate
  31. fixed interval
    • no matter how hard you work, get paid the same (slack)
    • low rate response
  32. variable interval
    • never know when at time
    • lowest rate of response
  33. fixed
    always same
  34. variable
    fluctuate
  35. ratio
    set number
  36. interval
    time
  37. positive reinforcement
    • stimulus presented after a response
    • increasing probability of that response happening again
    • add stimulus, increase behavior
  38. negative reinforcement
    • removal of an unpleasant stimulus
    • remove stimulus, increase behavior
  39. positive reinforcement
    • application of aversive stimulus after a response
    • add aversive stimulus,decrease behavior
  40. negative punishment
    • removal of an appetitive stimulus after response leading to a decrease in behavior
    • take away something do like, decrease in behavior
  41. when punishment works
    • must be immediate
    • consistent
    • no mixed messages
    • limited in duration & intensity
    • target behavior, not person
    • omission training
  42. primary reinforcers
    • necessary for survival
    • food, water, recognition
  43. secondary reinforcers
    money,praise,awards
  44. token economies
    encourage desirable and healthy patient behaviors
  45. premack principle
    more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
  46. difference between classical & operant
    • classical involuntary, operant voluntary
    • classical controlled by stimuli, operant is controlled by reinforcement
    • extinction: classical- witholding UCS, operant- withholding reinforcement
  47. insight learning
    • Wolfgang Kohler
    • combining simpler behaviors they learned separately
    • "aha!" moment
  48. latent learning
    • Edward Tolman
    • learning occurs under the surface
  49. cognitive maps
    • Edward Tolman
    • mental representations in space
  50. observational learning (Social Learning)
    learning via imitation
  51. "Bobo Doll" experiment
    • Albert Bandura
    • children copy adult's behavior towards doll
  52. vicarious learning
    learning by seeing the consequences of another person's behavior
  53. contingency model of classical conditioning
    • Robert Rescorla
    • conditioned stimulus, provides unique information about the inconditioned stimulus
  54. habituation
    learning not to respond to repeated presentation of a stimulus
  55. mere exposure effect
    learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed

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