chapter 34 radiography

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chapter 34 radiography
2010-12-01 20:19:29

interpretation of trauma and pulpal and periapical lesions
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  1. acts as a detector and shows change
    dental radiograph
  2. changes asociated with what 4 things can be seen on a radiograph
    • trauma
    • resorption
    • pulpal lesions
    • periapical lesions
  3. what can be examined with radiographs that cannot be seen clinically (3)
    • roots
    • pulp chambers
    • periapical regions of teeth
  4. injury produced by an external force
  5. what can trauma affect? (3)
    • crowns
    • roots
    • alveolar bone
  6. trauma may restult in fractures of teeth and bone and injuries such as (3)
    • intrusion
    • extrusion
    • avulsion
  7. defined as the breaking of a part
  8. fractures may affect (4)
    • crowns
    • roots
    • maxilla
    • mandible
  9. fractures that affect tooth crowns most often inolve
    anterior teeth
  10. most common fracture
  11. occurs most often in the maxillary central inciosors
    root fractures
  12. with time, root fractures have a tendancy to enlarge bc of (3)
    • displacement of root fragments
    • hemorrhage
    • edema
  13. jaw fractures reslult from (3)
    • assaults
    • accidents
    • sports injuries
  14. film of choice for eval of manibular fractures
  15. tooth displacement involves (2)
    • luxation (intrusion or extrusion)
    • avulsion
  16. abnormal displacement of teeth
  17. refers to the abnormal displacement of teeth into bone
  18. refers to the abnormal displacement of teeth out of bone
  19. teeth that have been luxated should be evaluated by a periapical radiograph and examined for (3)
    • root and adjacent alveolar bone fractures
    • damage to the periodontal ligament
    • pulpal problems
  20. complete displacement of a tooth from alveolar bone
  21. is an avulsed tooth seen on a radiograph
    no; you see a tooth socket without a tooth
  22. what do you look for in a tooth socket?
    splintered bone
  23. what two types of resporption are associated with teeth?
    • physiologic
    • pathologic
  24. process that is seen with the normal shedding of primary teeth
    physiologic resorption
  25. regressive alteration of tooth structure that is observed when a tooth is subjected to abnormal stimuli
    pathologic resporption
  26. seen along the periphery of the root surface and is often associated with reimplanted teeth, abnormal mechanical forces, trauma, chronic inflammation, tumors and cysts, impacted teeth, or idiopathic causes.
    external resorption
  27. external resorption most often affects
    apieces of teeth
  28. how does the apical region appear with external resorption
    blunted; length of the root appears shorter than normal
  29. is external resportion detected clinically?
  30. do teeth that have external resportion exibit mobility?
  31. is there effective treatment for external resorption?
  32. occurs within the crown or root of a tooth and involves the pulp chamber, pulp canals, and surrounding dentin
    Internal resorption
  33. appears as a rount-to-ovoid radiolucency in the midcrown or midroot portion fo a tooth
    internal resoprtion
  34. endodontic therapy may be used for internal resportion when?
    when the process has not physically weakened the tooth
  35. when the tooth is weakened what must be done?
  36. what must be obtained before treatment?
    size and location of the pulp cavity
  37. what are the common conditions of the pulp cavity seen on radiographs (3)
    • pupal sclerosis
    • pulpal obliteration
    • pulp stones
  38. diffuse calcification of the pulp chamber adn pulp canals of teeth that results in a pulp cavity of decreased size
    pulpal sclerosis
  39. pulpal sclerosis is associated with?
  40. does not appear to have a pulp chamber or pulp canals
    pulpal obliteration
  41. nonvital adn do not require treatment
    pulpal obliteration
  42. what irritants to the pulp my stimulate the producation of secondary dentin which obliterates the pulp cavity
    • attrition,
    • abrasion,
    • caries,
    • dental restorations,
    • trauma,
    • abnormal mechanical forces
  43. calcifications that are found in the pulp chamber or pulp canals of teeth
    pulp stones
  44. appear as round, ovoid, or cylindrical radiopacities, may conform the the shape of the pulp chamber or canal
    pulp stones
  45. pulp stones may vary in (3)
    • shape
    • size
    • number
  46. do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment
    pulp stones
  47. lesion located around the apex of a tooth
    periapical lesion
  48. on radiographs, periapical lesions may appear
    radiolucent or radiopaque
  49. Periapical radiolucencies (3)
    • granulomas
    • cysts
    • abscesses
  50. localized mass of chronically inflamed granulation tissue at the apex of a nonvital tooth
    periapical granuloma
  51. may give rise to a periapical cyst or abcess
    periapical granuloma
  52. sequela of pulpitis
    inflammation of the pulp
  53. most common sequela of pulpitis
    periapical granuloma
  54. has a prolonged history of sensativity to hot and cold
    periapical granuloma
  55. treatment of periapical granuloma
    • endodontic therapy
    • removal of tooth with curettage of the apical region
  56. another name for periapical cyst
    radicular cyst
  57. lesion that develops over a prolonged period; cystic degeneration takes place within a periapical granuloma and results in?
    periapical cyst
  58. the periapical cyst results from?
    pulpal death and necrosis
  59. Most common of ALL tooth related cysts?
    periapical cysts
  60. what percentage of cysts in the oral region are periapical?
  61. treatment of periapical cyst?
    • endodontic therapy
    • extraction of the tooth and curettage of the apical region
  62. localized collection of pus in the periapical region of a tooth that results from pulpal death
    periapical abscess
  63. has features of an acute pus-producing process and inflammation
    may result from an acute inflammation of teh pulp or an area of chronic infection
    Acute periapical abcess
  64. features of a long-standing, low-grade puss-producing process
    chronic periapical abcess
  65. acute periapical abcess is painful; pain may be (3)
    • throbbing
    • intense
    • constant
  66. the tooth with an acute periapical abcess is sensative to (3)
    • pressure
    • percussion
    • heat
  67. may be seen at the apical region of a tooth at the sight of drainage
    gumbiol (paralis)
  68. treatment of the periapical abcess incluedes
    • drainage
    • endodontic therapy or extraction
  69. Is radiographic change always evident with acute periapical abcess?
  70. results from a bacterial infection within the walls of the periodontal tissues that typically results from a preexisting periodontal condition
    periodontal abcess
  71. the most common symptom of periodontal abcess is?
  72. Therapy for a periodontal abcess includes
    deep scaling and dbridement of the periodontal tissues
  73. prognosis for the tooths periodontal health depends on (2)
    • amount fo bone loss
    • mobility
  74. tooth with an infection in the pulp
    periapical abscess
  75. tooth with purulent inflammation within the periodontal tissues
    periodontal abscess
  76. Periapical radiopacities (3)
    • condensing osteitis
    • sclerotic bone
    • hypercementosis
  77. periapical radiopacities can be diagonosed based on (3)
    • radiographic appearance
    • clinical info
    • patient history
  78. well-defined radiopacity that is seen below the apex of a nonvital tooth with a history of long-standing pulpitis
    condensing osteitis