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2010-12-01 00:41:41

Chapter 13
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  1. Heredity
    transmission of traits from one generation to the next
  2. variation
    non-identical copies of genes
  3. genetics
    scientific study of heredity and heredity variation
  4. genes
    hereditary units
  5. gametes
    • reproductive cells; copies of genes that can be passed along from one parent to offspring
    • transmit genes from one generation to the next
  6. locus
    gene's specific location along the length of the chromosome
  7. asexual reproduction
    single individual us the sole parent and passes copies of all its gene offspring; produces exact copies of themselves
  8. clone
    a groups of genetically identical individual
  9. sexual reproduction
    2 parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents
  10. life cycle
    generation to generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism from conception to production of its own offspring
  11. somatic cells
    any cell other than those involved in gamete formation
  12. karyotype
    display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs
  13. homologous chromosomes
    chromosomes composed of a pair that have the same length, centromere position and staining pattern
  14. sex chromosomes
    X and Y chromosomes
  15. autosomes
    other chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
  16. diploid cell
    any cell with two chromosome sets; 2n=46
  17. haploid cells
    single set of chromosomes (n=23)
  18. fertilization
    union of gametes
  19. zygote
    • fertilized egg; diploid
    • only cells in the body not produced by mitosis
  20. meiosis
    gametes formed by a modified type of cell division; reduces number of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in the gametes; occurs in ovaries and testis
  21. alteration of generation
    plant and some algae exhibit this 2nd type of life cycle; inc. diploid and haploid stages that are multicellular
  22. sporophyte
    multicellular diploid stage
  23. spores
    haploid cells produced in the sporophyte of meiosis
  24. gametophyte (plants and some algae)
    multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes unite and develop into sporophyte
  25. synapsis
    in prophase I, replicated homologs pair ip and become physically connected along their lengths by a sipper-like protein structure
  26. crossing over
    genetic rearrangement between non-sister chromatids
  27. chiasma
    physical manifestation of crossing over
  28. independent assortment
    each daughter cells represents one outcome of all possible combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes
  29. recombinant chromosomes
    individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 diff. parents