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2010-01-26 19:41:01

AP Biology Vocab
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  1. The study of the molecular basis of genes and gene expression; molecular genetics
    Molecular Biology
  2. A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage
    Bacteriophage (phage)
  3. An organic monomer consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. -----s are the building blocks of nucleic acid
  4. A polymer made up of many nucleotides covalently bonded together
  5. The alternating chain of of sugar and phosphate to which the DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases are attached
    Sugar-Phosphate Backbone
  6. A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA
  7. A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
  8. A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
  9. A double-ring nitrogenous base found in found in DNA and RNA
  10. A fluid-filled inner ear chamber containing hair cells that detect the position of the head relative to gravity
  11. The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
    Double Helix
  12. An enzyme that assembles DNA nucleotides into polynucleotides using a preexisting strand of DNA as a template
    DNA Polymerase
  13. An enzyme essential for DNA replication that catalyzes the covalent bonding of adjacent DNA nucleotides; used in genetic engineering to paste a specific piece of DNA containing a gene of interest into a bacterial plasmid or other vector
    DNA Ligase
  14. The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template
  15. The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids
  16. A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains
    The set of rules giving the correspondence between nucleotide triplets (codons) in mRNA and amino acids in protein
    Triplet Code
  17. A three-nucleotide sequence in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or polypeptide termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code
  18. An enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template
    RNA Polymerase
  19. A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA located at the start of a gene that is the binding site for RNA polyerase and the place where transcriptions begins
  20. A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene; it signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which departs from the gene
  21. The type of ribonucleic acid that encodes genetic information from DNA and conveys it to ribosomes where the information is translated into amino acid sequences
    Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  22. In eukaryotes, a nonexpressed (noncoding) portion of a gene that is exiced from the RNA transcript
  23. In eukaryotes, a coding portion of a gene
  24. The removal of introns and joining of exons in eukaryotic RNA, forming an mRNA molecule with a continuous coding sequence; occurs before mRNA leaves the nucleus
    RNA Splicing
  25. A type of ribonucleic acid that functions functions as an interpreter in translation. Each tRNA molecule has a specific anti-codon, picks up a specific amino acid and conveys the amino acid to the appropriate codon on mRNA
    Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  26. On a tRNA molecule a specific sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to a codon triplet on mRNA
  27. The type of ribonucleic acid that together with proteins makes up ribosomes; the most abundant type of RNA
    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  28. On mRNA the specific three-nucleotide sequence (AUG) to which an initiator tRNA molecule binds, starting translation of genetic information
    Start Codon
  29. In mRNA, one of three triplets (UAG, UAA, AGA) that signal gene translation of genetic information
    Stop Codon
  30. A change in a chromosome resulting from a chromosomal fragment attaching to a nongomologous chromosome; can occur as a result of an error in a meiosis or from mutagenesis
  31. A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA; the ultimate source of genetic diversity
  32. The way in which a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons
    Reading Frame
  33. The creation of a mutation
  34. A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
  35. A type of viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new viruses by lysis (breaking open) of the host cell
    Lytic Cycle
  36. A type of bacteriophage replication cycle in which the viral genome is incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage; new phages are not produced and the host cell not killed or lysed unless the viral genome leaves the host chromosome
    Lysogenic Cycle
  37. Phage DNA that has inserted by genetic recombination into the the DNA of a prokaryotic chromosome
  38. An RNA virus that reproduces by means of a DNA molecule; it reverse-transcribes its RNA into DNA inserts the DNA into a cellular chromosome and then transcribes more copies of the RNA from the viral DNA. HIV and a number of cancer-causing viruses are ------s
  39. An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA on an RNA template
    Reverse Transcriptase
  40. Aquirred immune deficiency syndrome; the late stages of HIV infection; characterized by a reduced number of T cells; usually results in death caused by other diseases
  41. Human immunodeficiency virus the retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and causes AIDS