Psych 2

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Anonymous
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52608
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Psych 2
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2010-12-01 04:04:52
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Chapter 2
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  1. A definition that defines a concept in terms of the steps and procedures used to measure that concept.
    operational definition
  2. The methods used to measure and describe aspects of behaviour and experience.
    descriptive research
  3. An individual's behaviour is changed in some way by being observed.
    reactivity
  4. Refers to how well the results of a research study generalize to other situations or are representative of real life .
    external validity
  5. A research technique that involves recording only naturally occurring behaviour, as opposed to behaviour produced in the laboratory.
    naturalistic observation
  6. Biologists who study the behaviour of animals in the wild.
    ethologist
  7. Type of naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a part of the activities being studied.
    participant observation
  8. Descriptive research technique in which the researcher focuses on a single case and studies and describes that case in great detail and depth.
    case study
  9. A descriptive research technique designed to gather limited amounts of information from many people, usually by administering a questionnaire.
    survey
  10. The complete group that the researcher wants to learn about is called?
    population
  11. The subset of individuals rom the target population are measured is referred to as a?
    sample
  12. These tests measure a person's current level of knowledge or competence in a particular subject compared with others.
    achievement test
  13. These tests are designed to measure a person's potential for success in a given profession or area of study.
    aptitude tests
  14. These tests assess effects of various kinds of brain damage on cognitive performance.
    neuropsychological tests
  15. To define a psychological variable operationally is to define it in terms of the steps or procedures that are used to ____ that variable.
    measure
  16. The ____ technique, in which one or a few individuals are studied in depth, is open to criticism because its results may lack ____; that is, the results may not generalize to or be representative of the population as a whole.
    case study, external validity
  17. When behaviour changes as a result of the observation process, the study may suffer form the problem of ____.
    reactivity
  18. The descriptive research technique used to gather information from many people is called a ____.
    survey
  19. A technique in which the investigator actively manipulates or alters some aspect of the environment independently of other variables and observes the effect of the manipulation on behaviour.
    experimental method
  20. The aspect of the environment that is manipulated by the researcher in an experiment; manipulation must consist of at least two conditions.
    independent variable
  21. The behaviour that is measured in an experiment.
    dependent variable
  22. An uncontrolled variable that changes along with the independent variable.
    confounding variable
  23. The extent to which an experimenter has effectively controlled for confounding variables; internally valid experiments allow for the determination of causality.
    internal validity
  24. An experiment design in which the participants do now know to which of the conditions they have been assigned; used to control for subject expectancies.
    single-blind study
  25. An experimental design in which neither the participants nor the research observers are aware of who has been assigned to the experimental and control groups; used to control for both subject and experimenter expectancies.
    double-blind study
  26. How much the scores in the set differ from one another.
    variability
  27. An indication of how much individual scores differ or vary from the mean in a set of scores.
    standard deviation

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