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Sulfonamide anti-infective drugs...
- inhibit growth of bacteria and NOT classified as antibiotics since don't actually kill bacteria.
- aka-sulfa drugs
1st antibiotic drug Penicillin
all penicillin drugs interfere with cell wall that surrounds a bacterium, disrupting intracellular contents causing cell death.
broad spectrum antibiotics
antibiotics effective against both gram +/- bacteria
penicillin G MUST b given by injection bc?
it is inactivated by gastric acid
3rd generation drugs are:
- strongest and most expensive
- works better against gram -, kills most resistant bacteria, cost more
- 1. kefelx
- 2. ceclor, mefoxin, cefzil
- 3. omicef, claforan, rocephin
do antibiotics cure viral infections?
all aminoglycoside antibiotic drugs have potential cause toxic effect to auditory nerve ototoxicity or kidneys nephrotoxicity
pts recieving these drugs are monitored with hearing tests and blood test BUN and creatinine for kidney function.
are tetracyclines routinely given to children under 8 or pregnant women?
- kills bacteria inhibiting enzymes that is essential to bacterial DNA replication & that causes death!
- cipro, levaquin
macrolide antibiotic drug
- inibit or kills bacteria
- zithromax, biaxin
zithromax drug lable
- half life 68 hrs
- good or bad
what is vancomycin used to treat?
MRSA-methicillin resistant staphylococcal infections
malignancies & opportunistic disease associated with AIDS
- kaposi sarcoma-soft brownish purple papules on feet slowly spread to skin. occurs mostly in men.
- lymphoma-plaque like pruritic rash spreads through skin bcomes nodular and systemic
- candida albicans-thrush, pneumocystis carinii-type pneumonia, TB, herpes viridae
HIV transmitted by:
- sexual contact with infected person
- contaminated needles/blood
- breast milk
- can remian symptom free for 4 to 5 yrs.
dividing line bt HIV and AIDS
- very low # of CD4 lymphocytes-usually less 200 cells
- opportunistic infections
lithium is also used for AIDS pts bc its side effect is
increasing WBC count which is good bc they have low WBC count
current drug therapy uses 2/3 antiviral drugs in combo more effictive than 1 drug also decreases risk of developing resistant strains of HIV
2006, FDA approved 1st combo drug to contain 3 diff AIDS drugs-atripla
- drugs stimulate appetite AIDS pts, build muscle mass, treat extreme weight loss.
- synovir, weed
- new growth of cells-benign or malignant
- all malignant growths called cancers
- comes from latin word crab
2 very important things drs must know to treat cancer....
- type-dx with biopsy
- stage-extent of cancer progression 1-5
when cancer cells stop reproducing
new combo drug may b tried
aklylating chemotherapy drugs
- crosslink strand of DNA with chemical in drug preventing cell form dividing
- most of these derivative of nitrogen mustard
- nitrogen mustard was 1st chemo drug
chemo antibiotic drugs
- chemo antibiotic drugs NEVER used in bacterial infections
- provides relief from symptoms but not cure
- used for advanced breast or prostate cancer
given prophylactically to women who are at high risk for develping breast cancer before they develop it.
- released by cell when invaded by virus it stimulates surrounding cells to produce certain proteins that prevent virus from spreading
- also given Hep C
drug for leukemia and pt must take it rest of life
injected IV then laser treatment on cancer site causes release of free radicals to kill cancer cells have been sensitized by drug
chemo drug injected directly into brain tumor through catheter
treats bladder cancer
used to stimulate RBC production treat anemia caused by either cancer or chemo drug.