MedT Ch. 15

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MedT Ch. 15
2010-12-14 21:54:49
Word Parts Definitions Exam

HLHS 101 Ch. 15: Musculoskeletal System
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  1. rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur, forming the hip joint
  2. outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder; overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle
  3. thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space
    articular cartilage
  4. dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton
  5. one of the mineral constituents of bone
  6. spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone
    cancellous bone
  7. flexible, rubbery connective tissue; found in the immature skeleton, at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces
  8. dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues
  9. hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones
    compact bone
  10. knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint
  11. skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal
    cranial bones
  12. shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone
  13. flat, round, plate-like structure; an intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae
    disk (disc)
  14. cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
    epiphyseal plate
  15. each end of a long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate
  16. bones of the face: lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic
    facial bones
  17. narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones
  18. soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant
  19. opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
  20. shallow cavity in a bone
  21. minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone
    haversian canals
  22. round process on both sides of the ankle joint
  23. upper portion of the sternum; articulates with medial aspect of clavicle
  24. round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear
    mastoid process
  25. central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
    medullary cavity
  26. flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis and epiphyseal plate
  27. large process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow
  28. bone tissue
    osseous tissue
  29. process of bone formation
  30. bone cell that helps form bony tissue
  31. bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue
  32. membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue
  33. mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium
  34. area of confluence of the two pubic bones in the pelvis; joined by a fibrocartilaginous disk
    pubic symphysis
  35. found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis
    red bone marrow
  36. twelve pairs of cerved bones that form the chest wall
  37. depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located
    sella turcica
  38. hollow air cavity within a bone
  39. pole-like process extending downward from teh temporal bone on each side of the skull
    styloid process
  40. immovable joint between bones, such as the skull
  41. connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and mandibular bone of the jaw
    temporomandibular joint
  42. supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous bone
  43. large process at the neck of the femur; attachment site for tendons of the hip musculature
  44. rounded, small process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons
  45. rounded process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons
  46. individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal
  47. lower, narrow portion of the sternum
    xiphoid process
  48. fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones
    yellow bone marrow
  49. calc/o, calci/o
  50. kyph/o
    humpback, hunchback (posterior curvature in the thoracic region)
  51. lamin/o
    lamina (part of the vertebral arch)
  52. lord/o
    curve, swayback (anterior curvature in the lumbar region)
  53. lumb/o
    loins, lower back
  54. myel/o
    bone marrow
  55. orth/o
  56. oste/o
  57. scoli/o
    crooked, bent (lateral curvature)
  58. spondyl/o (used to make words about conditions of the structure)
  59. vertebr/o (used to describe the structure itself)
  60. -blast
    embryonic of immature cell
  61. -clast
    to break
  62. -listhesis
  63. -malacia
  64. -physis
    to grow
  65. -porosis
    pore, passage
  66. -tome
    instrument to cut
  67. acetabul/o
    acetabulum (hip socket)
  68. calcane/o
    calceneus (heel)
  69. carp/o
    carpals (wrist bones)
  70. clavicul/o
    clavicle (collar bone)
  71. cost/o
  72. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  73. femor/o
    femur (thigh bone)
  74. fibul/o
    fibula (smaller lower leg bone)
  75. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone)
  76. ili/o
    ilium (upper part of pelvic bone)
  77. ischi/o
    malleolus (process on each side of the ankle)
  78. mandibul/o
    mandible (lower jawbone)
  79. maxill/o
    maxilla (upper jawbone)
  80. metacarp/o
    metacarpals (hand bones)
  81. metatars/o
    metatarsals (foot bones)
  82. olecran/o
    olecranon (elbow)
  83. patell/o
    patella (kneecap)
  84. pelv/i
    pelvis (hipbone)
  85. perone/o
  86. phalang/o
    phalanges (finger and/or toe bones)
  87. pub/o
    pubis (anterior part of the pelvic bone)
  88. radi/o
    radius (forearm bone-thumb side)
  89. scapul/o
    scapula (shoulder blade)
  90. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  91. tars/o
    tarsals (bones of the hindfoot)
  92. tibi/o
    tibia (shin bone)
  93. uln/o
    ulna (forearm bone-little finger side)
  94. rare malignant tumor arising in bone; most often occuring in children
    Ewing sarcoma
  95. bony growth (benign) arising from the surface of bone
  96. swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint near the base of the big toe and is accompained by the buildup of soft tissue and underlying bone at the distal/medial aspect of the first metatarsal
  97. traumatic breaking of a bone
  98. type of fracture: occurs near the wrist joint at the distal end of the radius
    Colles fracture
  99. type of fracture: bone is splintered or crushed into several pieces
    comminuted fracture
  100. type of fracture: bone collapses or is compressed
    compression fracture
  101. type of fracture: bone is partially broken; it breaks on one surface and only bends on the other; occurs in children
    greenstick fracture
  102. type of fracture: one fragment is driven firmly into the other
    impacted fracture
  103. common malignant tumor arising from osteoblasts
    osteogenic sarcoma (osteosarcoma)
  104. softening of bone, with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in the bone
  105. inflammation of the bone and the bone marrow secondary to infection
  106. decrease in bone density (mass); thinning and weakening of bone
  107. congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus); clubfoot
  108. smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint
    articular cartilage
  109. any type of joint
  110. sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another
  111. connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint
  112. immovable joint, such as betwen the bones of the skull
    suture joint
  113. space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane
    synovial cavity
  114. viscous fluid within the synovial cavity
    synovial fluid
  115. a freely movable joint
    synovial joint
  116. tissue lining the synovial cavity; it produces synovial fluid
    synovial membrane
  117. connective tissue that binds muscles to bones
  118. ankyl/o
  119. arthr/o
  120. articul/o
  121. burs/o
  122. chondr/o
  123. ligament/o
  124. rheumat/o
    watery flow
  125. synov/o
    synovial membrane
  126. ten/o
  127. tendin/o
  128. -desis
    to bind, tie together
  129. -stenosis
  130. inflammation of joints
  131. type of arthritis: chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine
    ankylosing spondylitis
  132. type of arthritis: inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body
    gouty arthritis (gout)
  133. type of arthritis: progressive, degenerative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone (formation of osteophytes, or bone spurs) at articular surfaces
    osteoarthritis (OA)
  134. type of arthritis: chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain; caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly the synovial membrane
    rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  135. compression of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist
    carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
  136. displacement of a bone from its joint
  137. fluid-filled cyst arising from joint capsules or tendons, typically in the hand
  138. abnormal protrusion of an intervertebral disk into the spinal canal or spinal nerves
    herniation of an intervertebral disk (slipped disk)
  139. disorder marked by arthritis, myalgia, and malaise; cause is a bacterium carried by a tick
    Lyme disease
  140. trauma to a joint without rupture
  141. chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system (CNS), heart, and lungs
    systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  142. decreasing the angle between two bones; bending a limb
  143. increasing the angle between two bones; straightening out a limb
  144. movement away from the midline of the body
  145. movement toward the midline of the body
  146. circular movement around an axis
  147. decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends backward (upward)
  148. motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground
    plantar flexion
  149. act of turning the palm of the hand up
  150. act of turning the palm of the hand down
  151. fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
  152. connection of the muscle to a bone that moves
    insertion of a muscle
  153. connection of the muscle to a stationary bone
    origin of a muscle
  154. muscle connected to bones; voluntary or striated muscle
    skeletal muscle
  155. visceral muscle
    smooth muscle
  156. skeletal muscle
    striated muscle
  157. muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle
    visceral muscle
  158. fasci/o
    fascia (forms sheaths enveloping muscles)
  159. fibr/o
    fibrous connective tissue
  160. leiomy/o
    smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs
  161. my/o
  162. myocardi/o
    heart muscle
  163. myos/o
  164. plant/o
    sole of the foot
  165. rhabdomy/o
    skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones
  166. sarc/o
    muscle and flesh
  167. -asthenia
    lack of strength
  168. -trophy
    development, nourishment
  169. ab-
    away from
  170. ad-
  171. dorsi-
  172. poly-
    many, much
  173. group of inherited diseases characterized by progessive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without involvement of the nervous system
    muscular dystrophy
  174. chronic inflammatory myopathy
  175. detects an antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    antinuclear antibody test (ANA)
  176. measures time it takes for erythrocytes to settle to the bottom of a test tube
    erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  177. serum is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    rheumatoid factor test (RF)
  178. measurement of calcium level in serum
    serum calcium (Ca)
  179. measurement of the enzyme creatine kinase in serum
    serum creatine kinase (CK)
  180. measurement of uric acid in serum
    uric acid test
  181. surgical puncture to remove fluid from the joint space
  182. taking x-ray images after injection of contrast material into a joint
  183. surgical repair or replacemeof a joint
  184. visual examination of a joint with an arthroscope and television camera
  185. low-energy x-ray absorption in bones of the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist is used to measure bone mass
    bone density test (bone densitometry)
  186. uptake of a radioactive substance is measured in bone
    bone scan
  187. x-ray beam and computer provide cross-sectional and other images
    CT scan
  188. x-ray examination of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disk after injection of contrast into nucleus pulposus (interior of the disk)
  189. recording the strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation
    electromyography (EMG)
  190. a magnetic field creates images of soft tissue
  191. removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination
    muscle biopsy