Volume 3 Chapter 9

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Volume 3 Chapter 9
2010-12-01 16:04:49
Volume Chapter

Volume 3 Chapter 9
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  1. Hematology
    Study of blood and the blood-forming organs
  2. Hematopoietic System Components
    • Blood
    • Bone marrow
    • Liver
    • Spleen
    • Kidneys
  3. Pluripotent Stem Cell
    A cell from which the various types of blood cells can form
  4. Hematopoiesis
    The process through which pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into different cell types
  5. Erythropoietin
    The hormone responsible for red blood cell production
  6. Components of Blood
    • Plasma
    • Formed elements
    • Red blood cells
    • White blood cells
    • Platelets
  7. Plasma
    Thick, pale yellow fluid that makes up the liquid part of the blood. 92% water 7% proteins, 3 percent others.
  8. Erythrocyte
    Red blood cell
  9. Hemoglobin
    Oxygen-bearing molecule in the red blood cells. It is made up of an iron-rich red pigment called heme and a protein called globin.
  10. Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
    Higher affinity of O2 to hemoglobin: decreased pH, increased CO2, increased temperature, increased 2,3-BPG

    Lower affinity is opposites
  11. Bohr Effect
    Phenomenon in which a decrease in PCO2 acidity caused an increase in the quantity of oxygen that binds with the hemoglobin and vise versa.
  12. 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG)
    Chemical in the red blood cells that affects hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen
  13. Erythropoiesis
    The process of producing red blood cells
  14. Hemolysis
    Destruction of red blood cells
  15. Sequestration
    Trapping of red blod cells by an organ
  16. Hematocrit
    The packed cell volume of red blood cells per unit of blood. Usually 45% of blood volume
  17. Leukocyte
    White blood cell
  18. Chemotaxis
    The movement of white blood cells in response to chemical signals
  19. Phagocytosis
    Process in which white blood cells engulf and destroy an invader
  20. Leukopoiesis
    Process through which stem cells differentiate into white blood cells immature forms.
  21. White Blood Cells Blasts
    • Myeloblasts
    • Monoblasts
    • Lymphblasts
  22. White Blood Cell Categories
    • Granulocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  23. Granulocytes
    • Basophils-Allergic reactions
    • Eosinophils- Allergic reaction mediators
    • Neutrophils- Fight infection
  24. Monocytes
    Turn into macrophages. Clean up dead cells after immune response
  25. Lymphocytes
    Primary cells in immune response
  26. Autoimmune Disease
    Condition in which the body makes antibodies against its own tissues
  27. Inflammatory Response
    Nonspecific defense mechanism that wards off damange from microorganisms or trauma
  28. Thrombocyte
    Blood platelet
  29. Hemostasis
    • Combined three mechanisms that work to prevent or control blood loss.
    • Vascular spasms
    • Platelet plugs
    • Stable fibrin blood clots
  30. Fibrinolysis
    Process through which plasmin dismantles a blood clot
  31. Thrombosis
    Clot formation
  32. Antigen
    Protein on surface of red blood cells that the patient's body recognizes as not self
  33. Blood Types
    • A
    • B
    • AB
    • O
  34. Polycythemia
    An excess of red blood cells
  35. Anemia
    An inadequate number of red blood cells or inadequate hemoglobin within red blood cells
  36. Diseases of the Red Blood Cells
    • Anemia
    • Sickle cell disease
    • Polycythemia
  37. Types of Anemia
    • Aplastic: Failure to produce RBCs
    • Iron Deficiency: No iron for hemoglobin
    • Pernicious: Lack of Vitamin B12 which is needed for red blood cell division
    • Sickle Cell: Genetic alteration of the shape of RBCs
    • Hemolytic: Body destroys RBCs
    • Chronic Disease: Hemmorhage
  38. Sickle Cell Anemia
    Inherited disorder of RBCs production. Cells become sickle shaped when oxygen levels are low
  39. Sickle Cell Crises
    • Vasoocclusive
    • Hematological
    • Infection
  40. Leukopenia
    Too few WBCS
  41. Leukocytosis
    Too many WBCs
  42. Diseases of the WBCs
    • Leukopenia/Neutropenia
    • Leukocytosis
    • Leukemia
    • Lymphoma
  43. Leukemia
    Cancer of the hematopoietic cells
  44. Lymphoma
    A cancer of lymphatic system
  45. Platelet Abnormalities
    • Thrombocytosis
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • Hemophilia
    • von Willbrand's Disease
  46. Thrombocytosis
    An abnormal increase in the number of platelets
  47. Trombocytopenia
    An abnormal decrease in number of platelets
  48. Hemophilia
    Blood disorder in which one of the proteins necessary for blood clotting is missing or defective
  49. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
    A disorder of coagulation caused by systemic activation of clotting cascade
  50. Multiple Myeloma
    A cancerous disorder of plasma cells