Ch. 2 Geography

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Ch. 2 Geography
2010-01-26 20:14:55
Ch. 2 Geography

terms for midterm from ch. 2
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  1. Electromagnetic Radiation
    one two-billionth of the energy emitted by the Sun. Some is directly absorbed by the atmosphere and surface. It provides the energy for the movement of the atmosphere, the growth of plants, the evaporation of water, and infinately other activities.
  2. Conduction
    the movement of heat through a substance without appreciable movement of molecules. An example of this is a metal rod above a campfire. The rod above the flame is warmed and the molecules there gain energy. Heat is "passed"
  3. Convection
    the transfer of heat by the mixing of fluids
  4. Radiation
    only form of heat transfer that can be propagated without a transfer medium. EVERYTHING radiates electromagnetic energy.
  5. Blackbodies
    hypothetical bodies that do not exist in nature. They emit maximum radiation at every wavelength. . Earth and sun are close to blackbodies. The factor that determines how much energy a blackbody radiates is its temperature. Hotter bodies emit more energy than cold ones do
  6. Graybodies
    capable of emiting maximum radiation at certain temperatures.
  7. Emissivity
    the percentage of energy radiated by a substance relative to that of a blackbody
  8. Shortwave Radiation
    wavelengths less than 4 um. Sun mostly emits shortwave radiation
  9. Longwave Radiation
    electromagnetic energy with wavelengths longer than 4 um. The radiation emanating from the earth is longwave radiation.
  10. Ecliptic Plane
    imaginary surface that is flat on which the earth rotates.
  11. Perihelion
    the point at which the earth is CLOSEST to the sun. This occurs every year on or about January 4th
  12. Aphelion
    the point at which the earth is furthest away. This occurs on or about July 4th.
  13. Summer Solstice
    when the northern hemisphere of the earth has its maximum tilt toward the sun. This occurs on June 21
  14. Winter Solstice
    when the northern hemisphere has its minimum availability of solar radiation. Occurs on December 21st
  15. Spring/March Equinox
    an tntermediate between the two solstices where everywhere on earth has equal amounts of energy and recieves 12 hours of sunlight. Occurs on March 21st
  16. Autumnal/September Equinox
    • an tntermediate between the two solstices where everywhere on earth has
    • equal amounts of energy and recieves 12 hours of sunlight. occurs on September 21st
  17. Tropic of Cancer
    at 23.5 degrees North latitude where the most northward latitude at which the subsolar point is located. The sun never passes directly overhead of this pint. This occurs in June
  18. Tropic of Capricorn
    the southernmost pint where the sun never passes and this occurs on December 21st.