Bio Final pt.1

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jnorice
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52751
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Bio Final pt.1
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2010-12-02 02:01:53
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General Biology final hypothesis statistics scientific information
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Chapters 1-12, 16&17
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  1. Chapter 1
  2. A scientific hypothesis has all the following features EXCEPT that it is:
    falsifiable.
    a possible explanation for something.
    based on observations.
    able to be proven true
    Able to be proven true
  3. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation of one or more observations it must be _______,_________, and not based on judgements.
    testable,falsifiable
  4. An explanation supported by a very large amount of experimental evidence is a ________________.
    Scientific Theory
  5. Mehran has heard from some of his teammates that drinking a high protein supplement after football training will improve his muscle mass. He
    decides to test this hypothesis by examining the effect of a high protein drink on some of his teammates compared with what happens with a control group who drink only water. Which of the following would be the best control for his
    experiment?
    A.)randomly selected teammates
    B.)volunteers from the football team who agree to take a placebo instead of a protein drink
    C.)volunteers from the general campus population who begin football training and are given a protein drink
    D.)randomly selected teammates who are given only small amounts of a protein drink
    E.) volunteers from the general campuspopulation who are not given any protein drink
    in training who are given a placebo instead of a protein drink
    A.)randomly selected teammates in training who are given a placebo instead of a protein drink
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. A __________ is a factor in an experiment that can be manipulated.
    Variable
  7. To combine a series of specific observations to make a general principal is_________.
    Inductive Reasoning
  8. What is hypothesis testing based on?
    *Making a prediction about the outcome of a test if/then*
    Deductive Reasoning
  9. _____________ Factors other than the tested hypothesis that may explain observations
    Alternative Hypothesis
  10. The __________ variable changes throughout the experiment, the __________ is what is observed and the ________ stay the same.
    Independent, dependent, Control
  11. An experiment in which individuals are not aware of exactly what they are predicted to experience is a?
    Blind Experiemnt
  12. An experiment is called double blind when?
    neither the subjects not the researchers know who is in the experimental and control groups
  13. relationship between two variables
    Correlation
  14. Model Organisms are typically _________.
    Mammals
  15. on a graph the x-axis represents_________ variable and the ______ represents the dependent variable
    Independent, Y-axis
  16. __________ is the specialized branch of mathematics used to evaluate and comapare data.
    Statistics
  17. _________ test can be used to extend the results from a sample to the entire population
    Statistical
  18. A ___________ ____________ result is one that is very unlikely to be due to chance differences between the experimental and control groups, showing a big difference between the groups.
    statistically significant
  19. When an experiment has a large sample size, and there is a large difference between the results in the experimental and control groups, it is ________ that the experimental results are statistically significant.
    Very Likely
  20. Certain researchers have published peer-reviewed reports that use of zinc lozenges reduces the length and severity of cold symptoms. What
    is one reason why some scientists are still skeptical about the merits of using zinc lozenges during a cold?
    There may be other reasons why the people taking zinc lozenges recovered faster, such as stress levels or differences in their immune systems.
  21. Effect on a chance on experimental results________
    Sampling Error
  22. A statistical measure of the amount of variability in a sample
    standard measure
  23. Statistical analysis of experimental results determines
    • the likelihood that the results are due to the
    • experimental treatment.
  24. What does it mean to say that experimental results are peer reviewed?
    the results are analyzed by other scientists before they are published.
  25. Written by researchers themselves.
    Primary Sources
  26. Books, news reports, and advertisements
    Secondary sources
  27. Anecdotal Evidence is?
    advice based on ones personal experience
  28. All the following are signs that a website contains reliable scientific information EXCEPT that the site

    A.)is set up to allow you to buy
    the product being described.

    B.)avoids anecdotal evidence.

    C.)is frequently updated to
    incorporate recent information.

    D.)backs up its claims with
    references to primary sources.

    E.)is maintained by a reputable
    medical establishment.
    A.)is set up to allow you to buy the product being described.
  29. Chapter 2!
  30. Imagine some table sugar dissolved in water. Which term best describes the water?
    Solvent
  31. A substance that dissolves when mixed with another liquid that substance is called a ________.
    Solute
  32. When a solute is dissolved in a liquid, that liquid is called a ___________.
    Solvent
  33. Because the electrons in a water molecule are shared
    unequally between hydrogen and oxygen, water is said to be
    Polar
  34. Different regions/poles of the molecule have different charges means it is _______.
    *water*
    Polar
  35. In general, what makes one kind of amino acid different from
    other amino acids?
    the side group
  36. Polysaccharides are polymers of
    sugars
  37. _________ is the organelle that performs photosynthesis.
    Chloroplast
  38. The ____________performs cellular respiration
    Mitochondrion
  39. ______ is found in both Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells
    DNA
  40. The ________ defines the outer boundary of all cells, separating the cell's contents from its environment.
    Plasma Membrane
  41. A(n) ________ is the fundamental structural unit of life on Earth.
    Cell
  42. Each is a lipid EXCEPT
    A.)cellulose
    B.)Phospholipids
    C.)Cholesterol
    D.)Fat
    E.)Steroids
    A.)Cellulose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Chapter 3!
  44. Water,Carbohydrates,proteins,and fats are all_________.
    Macronutrients
  45. Vitamins(supplements) are __________.
    Micronutrients
  46. In commercial food manufacturing, hydrogenation is used to
    make an unsaturated fat more saturated.
  47. The proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body are called
    Enzymes
  48. What is the intracellular destination of nutrients that
    provide energy and are the products of digestion in the human body?
    Mitochondria
  49. With no input of cellular energy, oxygen found in a high concentration in your lungs will move through the cell membrane into the capillaries surrounding your lungs, an area of lower concentration. This is an example of
    Simple Diffusion
  50. Diffusion is_______
    the movement of molecules form an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
  51. A _____________ membrane has a phospholipid bilayer.
    Plasma
  52. Even though they're extremely small, viruses are too large to enter a cell by passive or active transport and thus must enter a host cell via
    Endocytosis
  53. Phospholipid bilayer membranes are
    *allow some to pass and blocks others*
    differentially permeable
  54. True/False
    Hypertension is a major disease associated with
    lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet.
    True
  55. Chapter 4!

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