Animal Diversity

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Animal Diversity
2010-12-01 22:00:52

Minicourse 4
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  1. Main Phyla Branching points
    • Body symmetry (asymmetrical, radial, or bilateral)
    • The presence or absence of coelom body cavity
    • Whether the blastopore of the embryo develops into the mouth or the anus
  2. Poriferans
    • Sponges
    • Asymmetrical
    • Spongeol
    • Filter feeding
    • no true tissues
  3. Cnidarians
    • Jellyfish, hydra
    • Radial body symmetry
    • Gastrovascular cavity; tissues
    • One-opening
    • Cnidoblasts (stinging cells)
  4. Platyhelminths
    • Flatworms
    • Bilateral
    • Gastrovascular cavity; organs
    • One-opening
    • 1st true organs (pharynx)
  5. Mollusks includes
    • Gastropod
    • Bivalves
    • Cephalopods
  6. Mollusks
    • Bilateral
    • Coelom
    • Two-opening
    • Head-foot & mantle shell
  7. Gastropod
    • Snails, slugs
    • scraping tongue
  8. Bivalves
    • clams, oysters
    • filter feeder
    • enlarged gills
  9. cephalopods
    • octopus, squid
    • free-swimming predator
    • tentacles, eyes, large brain
  10. Annelids
    • Segmented worms
    • Bilateral
    • Coelom; segmented
    • Two-opening
  11. Anthropods
    • Bilateral
    • Coelom; some segmentation
    • Two-openings
    • Segmented
  12. Anthropods include
    • arachnids
    • crustaceans
    • insects
  13. Arachnids
    • Spiders
    • Fang-like mouths
  14. Crustaceans
    • Crabs, lobsters
    • 2 pairs of antennae
  15. Insects
    • Insects
    • 1 pair antennae
    • 6 legs, wings
  16. Echinoderms
    • starfish
    • bilateral larvae
    • secondarily radial adults
    • coelom
    • two-opening
    • deuterostomes; water vascular system
    • "spiny skinned"
  17. Chordates
    • Bilateral
    • Coelom; some segmentation
    • Two-openings
    • Deuterostomes
    • no backbone
    • dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal gill slits; tail; backbone
  18. Tunicates
    Dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal gill slits; tail; no backbone
  19. Vertebrates
    • Sharks, bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
    • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal gill slits; tail; backbone
  20. osculum
    excurrent opening in sponges
  21. spicules
    primitive form of structural support left behind by the bleach
  22. cnidoblasts
    stinging cells all cnidarians have and use for protection and for catching food
  23. nematocysts
    stinging devices on the tentacles of cnidarians
  24. What two forms do cniddarian life cycles alternate between?
    Polyp and medusa
  25. Polyp
    a sessile (permanently attached) asexual stage (look like hydra)
  26. Medusa
    sexual stage (look like jellyfish)
  27. What are the jellyfishes "gonads"?
    They are not true organs, but just clusters of gametes (eggs and sperm)
  28. In what ways can Hydra reproduce?
    Asexually (like polyps, by "budding") and sexually (with eggs and sperm, like the medusa form)
  29. mantle
    dorsal fold of tissue that secretes the shell
  30. siphons
    • water passes into the mantle cavity through the ventral incurrent siphon and out through the dorsal excurrent siphon
    • also directs the jet of water that is forced out of the mantle cavity when the squid contracts its mantle
  31. serially segmented
    • Annelids have serially segmented bodies
    • This means that the body is composed of repeated similar segments or "metameres".
    • This is called metamerism and is also found in arthropods and chordates.
  32. coelom
    • "second" body cavity that surrounds and is completely separate from the digestive cavity.
    • Inside this fluid-filled space of the coelom the internal organs can increase their surface are by bending and coiling (human intestine), can fill, empty, and slide past one another, lubricated with coelomic fluid (human lungs).
    • Foudn in annelids, mollusks, & other "higher" phyla
    • Not found in porifera and cnidaria
  33. Setae
    Bristles attached to the outside of the parapodia that help the earthworm move
  34. How might parapodia aid in gas exchange?
    Parapodia have a large surface are and keep fresh water with a high concentration constantly moving over the respiratory surface.
  35. Insects
    Bees, butterflies, roaches
  36. Crustaceans
    crabs, lobsters, crayfish
  37. Arachnids
    spiders, ticks, scorpions
  38. How many pairs of legs do insects have?
  39. How many pairs of legs do crustaceans have?
  40. How many pairs of legs do arachnids have?
  41. Which anthropod has wings?
  42. Deuterostomes
    echinoderms and chordates
  43. Protostomes
    anthropods and mollusks
  44. What three parts are the adult body of insects divided into?
    • Head, thorax, and abdomen
    • In arachnids and crustaceans the head and thorax are fused into a cephalothorax
  45. Tetrapods
    • Four foot
    • Amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
  46. What is the sieve plate?
    The round structure which leads into the water vascular system on a starfish
  47. What is the dermal papulae?
    The clear-white fleshy protrusions of the coelom that serve as sites of gas exchange