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what 3 ways can CO2 be transported in the blood?
diffused in the plasma, as bicarbonate, or bound to Hb
what percentage of CO2 is transported as bicarbonate?
what percentage of CO2 is transported by dissolution in plasma?
what percentage of CO2 is transported by binding to Hb?
distinguish between transport in the plasma and inside the RBC
in the plasma the CO2 molecules are just hanging out while inside the RBCs, the CO2 is actually bound to the Hb for the most part and for the other part either as a bicarbonate molecule or just dissolved in the intracellular fluid
what is the reaction that CO2 undergoes when it reacts with water inside the red blood cells
CO2 + H2O <-------> H2CO3 <-------> H + HCO3
which direction will the reaction of CO2 and H2O in the RBCs occur in the tissue area and in the lung area?
at the lungs the reaction goes to the right and at the tissues the reaction goes to the left because of the gas exchange process wanting to eliminated CO2 waste from the body
explain the haldane effect and how is this an advantage in the lung with respect to unloading CO2, and in the tissue area with respect to loading CO2
happens during external respiration and when richly oxygenated Hb does not hold CO2 as well. this causes the Hb to release the CO2 so it can be expired. in internal respiration poorly oxygenated Hb holds CO2 better, CO2 diffuses into the RBC then grabbed by Hb and most convert to HCO3 and O2 diffuses into plasma then into tissues
tells the concentration of hydrogen ions and OH ions where more H makes it more acidic and more OH makes it more basic
explain the pH scale
a pH of 7 is neutral, < 7 is acidic, > 7 is basic
the first line of defense, is a group of chemicals composed of a weak acid and a weak base that prevents a large change in pH
define strong and weak acid
strong acid releases abundant amount of H ions, weak acid releases very few
define strong and weak base
strong base gives away lots of OH ions or accepts lots of H ions and a weak base does not give away many OH ions or accept many H ions
define dissociation constant
how well H2O dissociates into H+ and OH-
define the henderson-hasselbach equation
used to calculate the pH using the carbonic acid and bicarbonates buffer system and how well the acid dissociates or contributes H ions
what are the 6 different buffer systems in the blood and which is the most usable for the body?
sodium bicarbonate-carbonic acid system, the phospate system and the protein system. The phosphate system as 2 systems outside of the cells (NaHPO4 and NaH2PO4) and 2 systems inside of the cells (KHPO4 and KH2PO4). The carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system is the most usable by the body
having a pH below 7.35
having a pH above 7.45
explain how acidosis and alkalosis can be caused by the resporatory system and how the body compensates for this.
if there is an increase in PaCO2 it is acidosis and metabolic alkalosis (an increase in HCO3-) will compensate. If there is a decrease in PaCO2 it is alkalosis and metabolic acidosis (a decrease in HCO3-) will be the compensatory mechanism.
how can acidosis and alkalosis be caused by metabolic problems and how does the body compensate for this.
when HCO3 levels are above 26 it is alkalosis (when accompanied by a pH > 7.45) and is compensated by the respiratory system increasing PaCO2 to lower pH to within normal range. when HCO3 levels are below 22 (when accompanied by a pH < 7.35) and is compensated by the respiratory system decreasing PaCO2 to increase pH to within normal range.
explain base excess/deficit
refers to the amount (either an excess or deficit of) of base present in the blood. if the pH is high, there is a base excess and when pH is low, there is a base deficit
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