– term for the Holy Spirit in the Gospel of John, Greek term is
– the belief (eventually rejected in Christianity)
that Jesus was an ordinary human being whom God chose declared “my son” at his
– The angel Gabriel’s announcement to Mary that she was
to bear a son who would sit on the throne of David.
- literally means “uncovering” or “revelation” is
literature that envisions the end of this age.
– a person commissioned to be a messenger, refers to the
12 main disciples of Jesus and a title Paul claimed for himself as well.
– The site for the final battle between good and evil
according to the book of Revelation, located at Megiddo in northern Israel.
– Jesus rising into heaven.
- the means of restoring a relationship damaged
or severed by sin
– literally “blessings,” refers to the beginning of
Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount in Matthew where he lists those who are “blessed” or
– A title for the Roman emperors.
– the Roman administration capital of
– the Sadducee High Priest of the Jerusalem temple in Jesus’ time.
– the fishing village where Jesus spent much time
during his ministry.
– a Roman officer, such as Cornelius in Acts.
- Greek work meaning “anointed one” (Hebrew messiah/mashiaxh) referring to a king from the house of David.
– Theology concerning who is Jesus Christ (e.g. human,
- the removal of
the foreskin of the penis, practiced by Jews with infant boys as a sign of
their covenant with God through Abraham.
– a learner or follower, in the New Testament a follower
of Jesus, including the Twelve.
– Writings from the first century BCE and CE found in
a cave in the desert. They
included both ancient Hebrew Bible manuscripts and the writings of the Essene
Dead Sea Scrolls
– a belief (rejected by Christianity) that Jesus was a
pure spirit who did not experience physical need or pain and only appeared to
- beliefs about the
end of the age or the fulfillment of time
– A Jewish sect in the first century BCE and
CE that believed they were living in the end times and two messiah’s would come
– a priestly messiah and a royal Davidic messiah – and there would be a final
battle between the “children of light” and the “children of darkness.”
-a letter addressed to a
– The region where Jesus grew up and conducted much of his ministry,
north of Judea and Samaria.
– someone who is not a Jew, one belonging to “the
– the garden or orchard where Jesus was praying
when he was arrested.
phenomenon of a person speaking a language unknown to themselves understood to
be a form of religious inspiration.
– refers either in general to the “good news” of salvation through Jesus
Christ or specifically to writings about Jesus’ life and teachings.
– the dominant culture in the Greek and Roman periods
influenced by both Greece and the Ancient Near East.
– ruler of Judea under Rome from 40-4 BCE with a
reputation for great building projects and for being a cruel ruler.
Herod the Great
– the ruler of Galilee under the Romans during the
time of Jesus. He had John the Baptist beheaded.
– literally “in the flesh” refers to the belief that
Jesus represents God in the flesh, “the Word became flesh and dwelt among us”
– one of the 12 apostles, a fisherman.
James, son of Zebedee
– one of the leaders of the early church
who advocated that Gentile Christians should follow the Jewish laws including
James the “brother of the Lord”
- the N.T. term for “Judah” referring to the
region around and south of Jerusalem during the Roman period.
– the name given to Mary’s song of praise in Luke after
Gabriel told her she would bear the heir to David’s throne.
– literally, someone who dies for their beliefs; the term is also used
for anyone who has suffered at all for their beliefs (see Stephen, book of
– Jesus’ mother, also called “the Virgin
Mary of Nazareth
– a disciple of Jesus who was at Jesus’ crucifixion,
found Jesus’ empty tomb, and saw the resurrected Jesus.
– friend and disciple of Jesus, sister of Martha and
Mary of Bethany
- Hebrew word which literally means “anointed one” refers in the O.T.
to God’s chosen and anointed king (anointed by God’s spirit and with oil).
– the town in Galilee where Jesus grew up.
– a Roman emperor who persecuted Christians.
– a Jewish harvest festival 50 days after passover. According to Acts it was during this
festival that Christians received the Holy Spirit after the ascension of Jesus.
– a Jewish religious group that encouraged obedience to
the laws of the Hebrew Bible and believed in a resurrection of the dead and a
– a Greek philosopher who argued that the material world is just an
inferior copy or shadow of the ideal/spiritual/non-material realm. When we die our immortal souls will
leave our material bodies to return to this higher realm.
– the Roman governor of Palestine, including
Judea, who sentenced Jesus to be crucified.
– the name scholars have given to the
hypothetical collection of Jesus’ sayings quoted by Matthew and Luke, means
– the return of the dead to life.
– the Jewish group in charge of the Temple in Jerusalem and
responsible for maintaining peaceful relations with the Roman occupiers.
– a group that considered themselves Jewish but were
not recognized by other Jews. They worshipped God at a Temple at Mount Gerizim
near Neapolis, rather than in Jerusalem.
– the Jewish religious council in Jerusalem.
– the Jewish name of Paul of Tarsus.
– a Jewish place of worship and scripture reading. Different from the Temple insofar as it
was not a place for offering sacrifices. It enabled Jews to worship together
without having to travel to the Jerusalem temple.
– the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, so-named
because of the similarity “seen together”
– the appearance of Jesus on Mt. Tabor with
Moses and Elijah as reported in the syoptic gospels.
– the doctrine officially accepted at the council of Nicea in 325 CE
that says that God is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (thus the Father is God; the
Son, Jesus, is God; and the Holy Spirit is also God).
– a Jewish group of freedom fighters against Roman