CHAPTER 24: SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTES

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banannie
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52836
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CHAPTER 24: SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTES
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2010-12-02 03:27:38
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CHAPTER SOLID HAZARDOUS WASTES
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Solid and hazardous wastes
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  1. Types of Solid Waste
    • Municipal solid waste and nonmunicipal solid waste.
  2. solid wastes from homes, offic stores, restaurants, schools, hospitals, prisons, libraries, and other commercial and institutional facilities.
    • Municipal solid waste –
  3. • This huge amount of ____ solid waste only comprises
    about 1.5% of all solid waste produced.
    • Most solid waste (98.5%) is ____ solid waste.
    municipal; non-municipal
  4. includes mining waste (75%),
    agricultural waste (13%), and industrial waste (9.5%).
    • Non-municipal solid waste
  5. Disposal of Solid Waste
    • The traditional view of solid waste is that it contains materials
    no longer of use and that there are four way to get rid of solid
    waste
    – 1. dump it, 2. bury it, 3. burn it, or 4. compost it.
  6. an old method of disposing of solid waste was to simply dump it directly on the ground or in the ocean with no attempt to protect the surrounding soil or groundwater from damaging environmental effects of the waste.
    • Open dumps
  7. Problems with open dumps
    • 1. odor
    • 2. spread of disease by animals (rats) and insects (flys)
    • 3. contamination of soil, surface water, and ground water.
    • 4. uncontrolled spread of hazardous waste.
    • 5. release of methane gas into the air as materials are broken down by decomposers
    • 6. appearance – reduced property values
  8. an engineered hole that receives solid wastes
    and is covered with a thin layer of soil on a daily basis. They
    include a soil liner to prevent (reduce) spread of chemicals.
    • Sanitary landfill
  9. Problems with sanitary landfills
    • 1. production of methane
    • 2. leakage
    • 3. they are filling up and closing
  10. something that
    breaks down when exposed to light.
    Some newer plastics are purposely
    made to be photodegradable and
    biodegradable.
    • Photodegradable
  11. materials that can be broken down by microorganisms.
    • Biodegradable
  12. burning.
    incineration
  13. Problems of incineration:
    • 1. Burning can lead to air pollution
    • 2. Huge expense in installing pollution control devices to deal with pollution.
  14. huge furnaces designed to burn all burnable solid waste.
    • Mass burn incinerators
  15. produce a chemical spray to neutralize acidic gases and
    reduce acid deposition (acid rain)
    • Lime scrubbers
  16. give ash a positive charge so that it is attracted to negative plates rather than being released into the air.
    • Electrostatic precipitators
  17. ____ and ____ serve to reduce air pollution but make the ash that remains behind even more toxic (concentrated).
    lime scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators
  18. 2 kinds of Ash are produced in incineration:
    bottom ash, fly ash
  19. the residue ash left at the bottom of the incinerator.
    Bottom ash
  20. ash from the flue or smoke stack
    Fly ash
  21. ____ is more toxic than ____ ash.
    fly ash; bottom ash
  22. conversion of organic
    waste into soil
    conditioner.
    • Composting
  23. Goals of waste prevention in order of priority:
    reduce, reuse, recylce
  24. conservation of resources by converting used products into new
    ones (Aluminum cans)
    • Recycling
  25. conservation of resources by using the product over and over.
    • Reuse
  26. intentional design of products to decrease volume of
    solid waste and hazardous waste
    • Source reduction
  27. progressive decrease in the size and weight of products as a result of technological improvements
    • Dematerialization
  28. ____ only results in source reduction if the new product is as durable as the one that was replaced.
    Dematerialization
  29. combination of techniques
    including of 3 R’s (source reduction, reuse, and recycling) to
    minimize waste.
    • Integrated waste management
  30. ____ represents the most effective way to deal with solid and hazardous waste.
    • Integrated waste management
  31. any discarded chemical that
    threatens human health or the environment.
    • Hazardous waste = toxic waste
  32. hazardous chemical formed as
    unwanted by-products during the
    combustion of many chlorine compounds.
    dioxins
  33. hazardous oily industrial chemicals
    composed of carbon, hydrogen and
    chlorine.
    • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s)
  34. unstable isotopes that emit harmful radiation energy particles.
    • Radioactive wastes
  35. use of bacteria and fungi to breakdown toxic wastes
    • Bioremediation
  36. use of plants to absorb and accumulate toxic wastes from the soil.
    • Phytoremediation
  37. • ____ decreases the amount of materials used during production. Because it stops waste before it starts, it is the top solid waste priority.
    • Source reduction
  38. a new branch of chemistry
    in which commercially important
    chemical processes are redesigned to
    significantly reduce environmental harm
    through source reduction.
    • Environmental chemistry = green chemistry
  39. Using tiny amounts of chemicals to see chemical reactions and interaction. This significantly reduces the amount of chemical used and therefore the hazardous waste generated.
    microchemistry
  40. the right of every citizen worldwide to have adequate protection from
    environmental hazards.
    • Environmental justice
  41. ____ restricts the international transport of
    hazardous waste.
    • It allows the export of hazardous waste only with prior consent of the
    importing country and any other countries the hazardous waste must
    pass through.
    • The Basel Convention
  42. the idea that quality of life and
    individual happiness are not
    linked to the material goods
    (toys) you have.
    • It includes community sharing
    of tools and cars.
    • Voluntary simplicity

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