• Municipal solid waste and nonmunicipal solid waste.
solid wastes from homes, offic stores, restaurants, schools, hospitals, prisons, libraries, and other commercial and institutional facilities.
• Municipal solid waste –
• This huge amount of ____ solid waste only comprises
about 1.5% of all solid waste produced.
• Most solid waste (98.5%) is ____ solid waste.
includes mining waste (75%),
agricultural waste (13%), and industrial waste (9.5%).
• Non-municipal solid waste
Disposal of Solid Waste
• The traditional view of solid waste is that it contains materials
no longer of use and that there are four way to get rid of solid
– 1. dump it, 2. bury it, 3. burn it, or 4. compost it.
an old method of disposing of solid waste was to simply dump it directly on the ground or in the ocean with no attempt to protect the surrounding soil or groundwater from damaging environmental effects of the waste.
• Open dumps
Problems with open dumps
2. spread of disease by animals (rats) and insects (flys)
3. contamination of soil, surface water, and ground water.
4. uncontrolled spread of hazardous waste.
5. release of methane gas into the air as materials are broken down by decomposers
6. appearance – reduced property values
an engineered hole that receives solid wastes
and is covered with a thin layer of soil on a daily basis. They
include a soil liner to prevent (reduce) spread of chemicals.
• Sanitary landfill
Problems with sanitary landfills
1. production of methane
3. they are filling up and closing
breaks down when exposed to light.
Some newer plastics are purposely
made to be photodegradable and
materials that can be broken down by microorganisms.
Problems of incineration:
1. Burning can lead to air pollution
2. Huge expense in installing pollution control devices to deal with pollution.
huge furnaces designed to burn all burnable solid waste.
• Mass burn incinerators
produce a chemical spray to neutralize acidic gases and
reduce acid deposition (acid rain)
• Lime scrubbers
give ash a positive charge so that it is attracted to negative plates rather than being released into the air.
• Electrostatic precipitators
____ and ____ serve to reduce air pollution but make the ash that remains behind even more toxic (concentrated).
lime scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators
2 kinds of Ash are produced in incineration:
bottom ash, fly ash
the residue ash left at the bottom of the incinerator.
ash from the flue or smoke stack
____ is more toxic than ____ ash.
fly ash; bottom ash
conversion of organic
waste into soil
Goals of waste prevention in order of priority:
reduce, reuse, recylce
conservation of resources by converting used products into new
ones (Aluminum cans)
conservation of resources by using the product over and over.
intentional design of products to decrease volume of
solid waste and hazardous waste
• Source reduction
progressive decrease in the size and weight of products as a result of technological improvements
____ only results in source reduction if the new product is as durable as the one that was replaced.
combination of techniques
including of 3 R’s (source reduction, reuse, and recycling) to
• Integrated waste management
____ represents the most effective way to deal with solid and hazardous waste.
• Integrated waste management
any discarded chemical that
threatens human health or the environment.
• Hazardous waste = toxic waste
hazardous chemical formed as
unwanted by-products during the
combustion of many chlorine compounds.
hazardous oily industrial chemicals
composed of carbon, hydrogen and
• Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s)
unstable isotopes that emit harmful radiation energy particles.
• Radioactive wastes
use of bacteria and fungi to breakdown toxic wastes
use of plants to absorb and accumulate toxic wastes from the soil.
• ____ decreases the amount of materials used during production. Because it stops waste before it starts, it is the top solid waste priority.
• Source reduction
a new branch of chemistry
in which commercially important
chemical processes are redesigned to
significantly reduce environmental harm
through source reduction.
• Environmental chemistry = green chemistry
Using tiny amounts of chemicals to see chemical reactions and interaction. This significantly reduces the amount of chemical used and therefore the hazardous waste generated.
the right of every citizen worldwide to have adequate protection from
• Environmental justice
____ restricts the international transport of
• It allows the export of hazardous waste only with prior consent of the
importing country and any other countries the hazardous waste must
• The Basel Convention
the idea that quality of life and
individual happiness are not
linked to the material goods
(toys) you have.
• It includes community sharing
of tools and cars.