MCB 62 Cacao and amphetamines 11/9

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  1. Cacao beans as currency
    Aztecs circa 1500 AD
  2. Preperation of Cacao beans
    • grown as an understory plant
    • oxidation and fermentation help to make the beans taste like chocolate
    • beans are crushed to make a smooth paste and then roasted
  3. Chemistry of Cacao
    • xanthines (stimulants)
    • flavonoids (antioxidant, maybe other)
    • anadamide (endogenous NT)
  4. Cola acuminata
    • Kola
    • Africa
    • caffeine
  5. Paulina cupana
    • Guarana
    • Brazil
    • Caffeine
  6. Primary Natural Sources of Caffeine
    • Ilex guayusa...Amazon jungle, Schultes, native people make tea
    • Ilex vomitoria...Native to N America
    • Ilex paraguariensis...Yerba Mate
  7. Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguarensis)
    • Drinken out of mate gourds and bombillas....pour hot water in gourds, suck out with metal straw
    • Active ingredient= mateine which is basically caffeine
  8. Amphetamine
    • First synthesized in 1887
    • Clinical marketing in the 1930s originally for asthma...Benzedrine (brand name) inhalers
  9. Effects of Amphetamines on the Brain
    • causes the release of norepinephrine and dopamine via post-synaptic reuptake transporters
    • leaks out reuptake transporters out of leaky storage vesicles and stimulates postsynaptic NT receptors
  10. Brain Norepinephrine Circutry
    • Locus Coeruleus
    • touches a ton of neurons, but only contains 100,000 neurons
    • releases norepinephrine
  11. Brain Dopamine Circutry
    • Caudate nuclues, substantia nigra
    • only 100,000 neurons, sends signals throughout rest of the brain
  12. Effects of amphetamine-like drugs
    • Increases activity at reward circutry, mostly dopamine
    • Sympathiomimetic
    • Increased HR
    • Increased BP
    • dialation
  13. CNS effects of dopamine
    • increased wakefulness
    • focused attention
    • decreased fatigue and increased stamina
    • positive mood, euphoria
    • reduced appetite
  14. Medical Use of Amphetamines
    • appetite suppression/weightloss
    • treatment of narcolepsy
    • historically as an inhaler, CNS stimulant
    • military as a stimulant
    • ADHD
  15. Problematic effects of amphetamine
    • anxiety
    • irratability
    • aggresion
    • impaired judgement
    • stimulant psychosis
    • addiction

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MCB 62 Cacao and amphetamines 11/9
2010-12-02 10:21:23

your dad
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