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Types of Causal Relationships
- necessary and sufficient
- necessary but not sufficient
- sufficient but not necessary
- neither necessary nor sufficient
Criteria for grading the internal validity of individual studies
- systematic review
- case-control study
- RCTs and cohort studies
- diagnostic accuracy studies
any systematic error in the design, conduct or analysis of a study that results in a mistaken estimate of an exposure's effect on the risk of disease
When the incidence rate of disease in the presence of two or more risk factors differs from the incidence rate exposed to result from their individual effect
3 questions to determine if interaction is present
- is there association?
- if so, is it due to confounding?
- is the association equally strong in strata formed on the basis of a third variable?
- No = interaction present Yes = interaction not present