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Causality
When the occurrence of X increases the probability of the occurrence of Y.

Concomitant Variation
A condition for inferring causality that requires that a cause, X, and an effect, Y, occur together or vary together as predicted by the hypothesis under consideration.

Independent Variables
Variables that are manipulated by the researcher and whose effects are measured and compared.

Test Units
Individuals, organizations, or other entities whose response to independent variables or treatments is being studied.

Dependent Variables
Variables that measure the effect of the independent variables on the test units.

Extraneous Variables
Variables, other than the independent variables, that influence the response of the test unit.

Experiment
The process of manipulating one or more independent variables and measuring their effect on one or more dependent variables, while controlling for the extraneous variables.

Experimental Design
 The set of experimental procedures specifying:
 1) the test units and sampling procedures
 2) Independent Variables
 3) Dependent variables
 4) how to control the extraneous variables

Internal Validity
A measure of accuracy of an experiment. It measures whether the manipulation of the independent variables, or treatments, actually caused the effects on the dependent variables.

External Validity
A determination of whether the causeandeffect relationships found in the experiment can be generalized.

History
Specific events that are external to the experiment but occur at the same time as the experiment.

Maturation
An extraneous variable attributable to changes in the test units themselves that occur with the passage of time.

Main Testing Effect
An effect of testing occurring when a prior observation affects a latter observation.

Interactive Testing Effect
An effect in which a prior measurement affects the test unit's response to the independent variable.

Instrumentation
An extraneous variable involving changes in the measuring instrument or in the observer or scores themselves.

Statistical Regression
An extraneous variable that occurs when test units with extreme scores move closer to the average score during the course of the experiment.

Selection Bias
An extraneous variable attributable to the improper assignment of test units to treatment conditions.

Mortality
An extraneous variable attributable to the loss of test units while the experiment is in progress.

Confounding Variables
Synonymous with extraneous variables, used to illustrate that extraneous variables can confound the results by influencing the dependent variable.

Randomization
One method of controlling extraneous variables that involves randomly assigning test units to experimental groups by using random numbers. Treatment conditions are also randomly assigned to experimental groups.

Matching
One method of controlling extraneous variables that involves matching test units on a set of key background variables before assigning them to the treatment conditions.

Statistical Control
One method of controlling extraneous variables by measuring the extraneous variables and adjusting for their effects through statistical methods.

Design Control
One method of controlling extraneous variables that involves using specific experimental designs.

Preexperimental Designs
Designs that do not control for extraneous factors by randomization.

True Experimental Designs
Experimental designs distinguished by the fact that the researcher can randomly assign test units to experimental groups and also randomly assign treatments to experimental groups.

QuasiExperimental Designs
Designs that apply part of the procedures of true experimentation but lack full experimental control.

Statistical Design
Designs that allow for the statistical control and analysis of external variables.

OneShot Case Study
A preexperimental design in which a single group of test units is exposed to a treatment X, and then a single measurement on the dependent variable is taken.

OneGroup pretest posttest design
A preexperimental design in which a group of test units is measured twice.

Static Group
A preexperimental design in which there are two groups: the experimental group (EG), which is exposed to the treatment, and the control group (CG). Measurements on both groups are made only after the treatment, and test units are not assigned at random.

PretestPosttest control group design
A true experimental design in which the experimental group is exposed to the treatment but the control group is not. Pretest and posttest measures are taken on both groups.

Posttestonly Control group design
A true experimental design in which the experimental group is exposed to the treatment but the control group is not and no pretest measure is taken.

Solomon Fourgroup design
A true experimental design that explicitly controls for interactive testing effects, in addition to controlling for all the other extraneous variables.

Time Series Design
A quasiexperimental design that involves periodic measurements on the dependent variable for a group of test units. Then, the treatment is administered by the researcher or occurs naturally. After the treatment, periodic measurements are continued in order to determine the treatment effect.

Multiple Time Series Design
A time series design that includes another group of test units to serve as a control group.

Randomized Block Design
A statistical design in which the test units are blocked on the basis of an external variable to ensure that the various experimental and control groups are matched closely on that variable.

Latin Square Design
A statistical design that allows for the statistical control of two noninteracting external variables in addition to the manipulation of the independent variables.

Demand Artifacts
The respondents attempt to guess the purpose of the experiment and respond accordingly.

Test Marketing
An application of a controlled experiment done in limited, but carefully selected, test markets. It involves a replication of the planned national marketing program for a product in the test markets.

Standard Test Market
A test market in which the product is sold through regular distribution channels. For example, no special considerations are given to products simply because they are being testmarketed.

Controlled Test Market
A testmarketing program conducted by an outside research company in field experimentation. The research company guarantees distribution of the product in retail outlets that represent a predetermined percentage of the market.

Simulated Test Market
A quasitest market in which respondents are preselected, then interviewed and observed on their purchases and attitudes towards the product.

Debriefing
After the experiment informing test subjects what the experiment was about and how the experimental manipulations were performed.

