Exam 3 - infectious diseases

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tasha081
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Exam 3 - infectious diseases
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2010-12-02 22:44:01
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infectious diseases
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exam three on infectious diseases
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  1. Streptococcus pyogenes
    • -strept throat
    • -airborne/contact
    • -virulence factors = capsule & M protein; evasion
    • -hemolytic
  2. What inflammatory/invasive diseases does S. pyogenes cause?
    • -pharyngitis (only one requiring antibiotics)
    • -impetigo
    • -cellulitis
    • -necrotizing facitis
  3. What toxigenic diseases does s. pyogenes cause?
    • -scarlet fever
    • -toxic shock like sx
  4. What immunologic diseases does s. pyogenes cause?
    • -Rheumatic fever
    • -kidney disease
  5. Scarlet fever
    • -caused by s. pyogenes
    • -lysogenic and codes for exotoxin which causes scarlet fever rash
    • -mild to life threatening
  6. Glomerulonephritis
    • -kidney disease can be caused by s. pyogenes
    • -edema and hematuria 10-21 days after infection
  7. Rheumatic fever
    • -autoimmune
    • -antibodies made against S. pyogenes can react with heart and joint tissue
  8. Necrotizing fascitis
    • -caused by s. pyogenes
    • -fleash eating disease
  9. impetigo
    • -s. pyogenes, s. aureus
    • -honey crusted lesions on skin
    • -
  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • -airborne/contact
    • -capuslated=virulent
    • -over 90 serotypes knowns
  11. What diseases are associated w/ S. pneumoniae
    • -leading cause of outpatient bacterial pneumonia
    • -otitis media
    • -adult bacterial meningitis
    • -sinusitis, conjuctivitis
  12. How is s. pneumoniae treated?
    • -penicillin
    • -erthromycin and lincomycin second choices
  13. What vaccines are available for s. pneumoniae?
    • pneumovax: 23 most common serotypes; recommended for those at increased risk
    • pentavar: 7 serotypes; for use in infants
  14. Viridians streptococci
    • -contact/airborne
    • -endocarditis
    • -tx = antibiotics
    • -no vaccine
  15. Staphylococcus aureus
    • -airborne/contact
    • -foodborne
    • -capsulated
    • -most common cause of impetigo
    • -scalded skin syndrome
    • -toxic shock syndrome
    • -MRSA
  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • -thick peptidoglycan layer, no outer membrane
    • -airborne (aerosoles)
    • -causes tuberculosis
  17. What are the two stages of TB?
    • 1) TB infection
    • 2) TB disease
  18. TB infection
    • 30% of ppl exposed
    • inhalation of droplets containing tuberculosis
  19. Latent TB infection
    • 90% of people infected
    • bacteria remain viable for a period of time and then are released when host is released
  20. TB disease
    • fulminant TB infection
    • develops slowly over course of a few months
    • rust colored sputum
    • extremely contagious
  21. What is tx of tuberculosis?
    • long term therapy (6-9 months)
    • comination of 2 or more drugs b/c of antibiotic resistant mycobacteria
    • DOT
  22. Corneybacterium diptheriae
    • -airborne/contact
    • -virulence factor = exotoxin
    • -inflammatory response can result in suffocation
    • -vaccine = diptheria toxoid
  23. Legionella pneumophilia
    • airborne, foodborne, waterborne
    • resistant to chlorination
    • Legionnaire's disease
    • sx: pneumonia w/ fever, dry cough, mild headache
  24. How is L. pneumophilia tx?
    it makes penicillinase so erythromycin is the drug of choice
  25. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • transmission: contact, sometimes airborne
    • disease: opportunistic - Cystic fibrosis, burn wounds
    • tx: antibiotics but difficult due to extensive reisistance to antibiotics
  26. Respiratory syncytial Virus (RSV)
    • -airborne/contact
    • -children infected within 1st two years of life
  27. Measles virus
    • -airborne/contact, very contagious
    • -systemic infection, rashfrom T cells reacting with virus cells in small blood vessels
    • vaccine = live attenuated measles
  28. Mumps virus
    • -airborne/contact
    • -infects glands/organs
    • -vaccine = live attenuated mumps
  29. Rubella virus
    • -airborne/contact, mother to fetus
    • -causes skin rash, viral replication in lymph nodes, replication in lymph nodes w/ transmission to other systems
    • -vaccine= live attenuated viral vaccine (pregnant women should not be vaccinated)
  30. Varicella-zoster virus
    • herpes virus
    • airborne/contact
    • replicates in epithelial cells, enters blood, causes lesions (chicken pox & shingles)
    • vaccine = attenuated live virus
  31. SARS sx
    • fever
    • pneumonia w/ non productive cough
    • lymphopenia
    • liver involvement
    • rigor, malaise
    • diarrhea
  32. Clostridium perfrigens
    • foodborne, soilborne, can enter through wounds
    • disease: food poisoning, gas gangrene
    • vaccine: = none
    • treatment = none, rehydration, antibiotics
  33. Clostridium botulinum
    • foodborne, biological warfare
    • disease = botulism - severe food poisoning
    • vaccine = exists but for military only
    • tx =antitoxin
  34. Salmonella typhimurium
    • foodborne, fecal, oral, aerosol
    • disease = salmonella enteritis
    • vaccine = none
    • tx = rehydration
  35. Salmonella typhi
    • waterborne, foodborne, fecal/oral (flies, food, fingers, feces, fomites)
    • disease = 5-21 days after infection; acid resistant
    • cause of typhoid fever
    • vaccine = none
    • tx = chloramphenicol, some resistant
  36. Listeria Monocytogenes
    • foodborne - cold cuts/dairy products
    • disease = meningitis, delerium, coma, death; transplacental infections
    • vaccine = none
    • tx = antibiotics
  37. Campylobacter jejuni
    • foodborne
    • disease = profuse watery diarrhea
    • vaccine = none
    • tx = erythromycin
  38. Bacillus anthracis
    • soilborne, foodborne, biological weapon (airborne & vectorborne)
    • cutaneous infection, inhalation, intenstinal
    • vaccine = military use only
    • tx = doxycycline and ciproflaxin
  39. Clostridium tetani
    • soilborne, deep wounds
    • virulence = tetanus toxin
    • disease = must be desposited into a deep wound
    • vaccine = toxoid vacine
    • tx: = antitoxin, antibiotic, limit stimuli
  40. Norcardia
    • soilborne
    • disease = pulmonary infection, pneumonia w/ sx resembling tuberculosis; madura foot
    • vaccine = none
    • tx = various antibx
  41. Hantavirus
    • transmission = inhalation of rodent droppings, contact to contact
    • disease = pulmonary syndrome, hemorrhagic fever w/ renal syndrome
    • tx = none, prevention of exposure to rodent droppings
  42. Rabies virus
    • vectorborne - animals
    • disease = replicates in injured tissue and spreads to nerve fibers
    • vaccine = 5 intramuscular injections; can vaccinate after exposure to promote and protective immune response
  43. Mycobacterium leprae
    • transmitted via contact
    • disease - skin, likes to grow on cooler regions of the body
    • vaccine = none
  44. Epstein Barr virus
    • contact - can be acquired from water fountains
    • commonly known as mono
  45. Mycoplasmas
    • no cell wall
    • pelvic inflammatory disease
    • tx = tetracycline
  46. CMV - cytelomegavirus
    • transmission = urine, blood, milk, saliva, vaginal and cervical secretions; sexually transmitted
    • tx = gancyclovir
  47. Neisseria gonnorraheae
    • sexually transmitted; possibly contact
    • one of most common STD's
    • disease = attach to epithelial cells in males -urethra or female cervix
    • tx = quinolones
  48. Treponema pallidum
    • sexually transmitted
    • primary, secondary & tertiary stages
    • vaccine = none
    • tx = penicillin

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