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1897 isolated mescaline from peyote cactus
- Brand name for LSD, made by Sandoz and distributed free of charge for research
- suggested psychiatrists take it to understand their mental patients better
LSD in Clinical Research
- 1950s-1960s there was clinical research using LSD for the treatment of addiction, psychosis, and other mental illnesses
- Bill Wilson, founder of AA, had experienced this
CIA and Government Use
1950S government looked into possible chemical weapon use
- wrote "The Doors of Perception"
- helped name "psychedelics"
Timothy Leary 1920-1996
- PHD from Berkeley
- Nixon called him the "most dangerous man in America"
- psychologist that encouraged LSD useage
- LSD maker in Berkeley
- Gave away LSD free or low cost in the Bay Area in the 60s, contributed to its popularity
LSD Blotter Paper
- 1970s introduced
- paper with small squares of LSD, perfect portions
Possible Adverse Effects of LSD and pyschedelics
- known physical toxicity is low to nonexistant
- therapeutic index is very high
- dangerous behavior while intoxicared possible
- anxiety and panic associated with a bad trip
- creation or exacerbating of long term cognitive/emotional problems
re-experiencing altered state in absence of the drug
Banning of LSD
- late 1960s laws against LSD in some states including California
- 1968 CSA Schedule 1
LSD in the Brain
agonist @ serotonin 2A receptors
- psychedelic mushroom containing psilocybin and related molecules
- psilocybin and psilocin are the active chemicals
- Identified by Albert Hoffman in 1958
R. Gordon Wasson
- oaxaca, mexico in the 1950s
- found ritual mushroom usage by the mazatecs
- techanacatl= aztec name meaning "flesh of the gods"
mazatec shaman who introduced the modern world to the ritual ehtnobotanical uses of mushrooms in her culture