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2010-12-02 18:44:09
music history romanticism

Opera and Musical Theatre in the Later 19th century / Chapter 28
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  1. Giuseppe Verdi lived during which years?
  2. Verdi built on traditions established by whom?
    Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti.
  3. The early 1850s were considered his _ period. What works were created?
    Productive period. Rigoletto, Il trovatore, and La Traviata.
  4. The greatest opera written during the later 19th century by Verdi is _.
  5. Which operas were based on plays by Shakespeare?
    Otello and Falstaff. Shakespeare was Verdi's favourite dramatist.
  6. How does Verdi experiment with opera?
    By making the action more continuous, and with combining solos, ensembles, and choruses freely.
  7. Another principal work by Verdi is considered to be..?
    Requiem (Manzoni Requiem)
  8. La Traviata was significant how?
    • Written because of Verdi's concern for dramatic realism
    • One of the first tragic operas to be set in the present
    • Based on a play by Alexandre Dumas fils, La Dame aux camelias. (Realism: pitting bourgeois against young people rebelling against the establishment; presenting a courtesan as the heroine was very daring for those days)
    • The setting and subject matter link to the contemporary trend of realism in both literature and art.
  9. What is a scena?
    A term often used in 19th-century opera scores for the recitative portion of the number, but is flexible and changable than that of 18th-century recitative.
  10. La Traviata. Give everything.
    • Composer: Verdi
    • Genre: scena (recitative) and duet from an opera
    • Century: 19th
    • Form: free recitative, duet is AABB with coda
  11. Characteristics of La Traviata, both Recitative and Duet:
    • 1. Different from traditional accompanied recitative, because the accompaniment in the orchestra is continuous (instead of brief interjections.)
    • 2. A long crescendo begins when Alfredo appears, and builds to a climax as the lovers embrace; their reunion is symbolized by long melodic phrases in octaves.
    • Duet:
    • 1.Set in waltz time to suggest the dancing and parties of Violetta's old life as a courtesan.
    • 2.At the end of the B section, Violetta and Alfredo join together to sign a cadenza-like coda.