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The Scientific Revolution was caused by...
- 1. The Renaissance
- a. Interest in old math
- b. Patronage for scientific development
- 2. Navigational Problems
- 3. Medieval Universities-
- Gresham-Founds college to solve Navigational Acts
Math=a system of rules
- "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres"-Star's movement due to Earth's rotation
- 1572-Bright star emerges
- 1577-Comet goes across the sky
Luther and Calvin
Hate Copernicus Theory
- Three Laws of Planetary Motion:
- 1. 1609-Ellipses
- 2. Planets move at different speeds
- 3. Orbit related to distance from the sun
- Repeatable experimentation
- Telescope-4 moons of Jupiter
- Concept of uniform forms for universal acceleration
- "Dialogues of the Two Chief Systems of the World"
- Synthesis of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler-"Principia"
- Laws of Universal Gravitation and Inertia
- Empiricism-experimental research
- INDUCTIVE Reasoning
- DEDUCTIVE Reasoning
- Cartesian Dualism-Physical and Spiritual being
- Connection between Algebra and Geometry
World view changes because...
- a. Methods of science-Reason (The scientific approach)
- b. Idea of progress
- c. Beginning of Social Sciences
Why was France the place of the Enlightenment?
- a. French=International language of the educated elite
- b. Absolutist power not as strong
- c. Philophes-Dedicated, organized
Why the Enlightenment?
- a. The Scientific Revolution
- b. Travel literature grows-Relative Truth
- c. Question of Religious Truth
- d. John Locke's-"Essay Concerning Human Understanding"-Tabula Rasa
How did the Enlightenment spread?
- a. Satire and Double Meaning
- b. Under the Cloak publications
- "The Leviathan"
- People give Gov't power to protect
- Suck it up
- Sovereignty favored in Gov't
- Upper class likes
- "Essay Concerning the Human Understanding", "Second Treatise of Civil Government"
- Blank slate=People
- People give Gov't power to protect natural rights
- Sovereignty in People
- Constitutional Monarchy
- Middle class favored
- "Social Contract"
- Humans=Good, Society corrupts
- General will
- Sovereignty in General will
- Democracy/Dictatorship favored
- Lower class
- "Conversations of plurality of lords"-skepticism
- "Eulogies of scientist"-Scientific and superstitious, satirical
"Historical and Critical Dictionary"-beliefs differ religious toleration doubt
- "Persian Letter"-Relativism
- "Spirit of Laws"=Government that is best separate powers (admires Britain)
- Hates intolerance, free speech advocate, radical
- Politically-works for other forms of Gov't (not democracy)
- Economically and Socially-not want equality
- Radical: Challenges church, source of intolerance
Banned b/c she is a woman, spread ideas of others
Diderot and Alembert
"Encyclopedia"-17 volumes, advocate Science and Art, critical on religion-REASON
"System of Nature"-atheist, still dogmatic
Mind a group of impression, question reason itself-Scientific Experimentation only, hurts EL
- "Progress of the Human Mind"-Progress of Reason, Establishment of Liberty
- One day, death only comes from old age and accidents
"Progress of Mankind"-never go back to barbarism
- Free press
- Ideas flow with EL follow
- Reading Revolution-French writers use him to publish
- Prevent crime through certainty, not severity
- Excess punishment-Barbarity
- Penalties scaled to the offense
"The Wealth of Nations"-The Invisible Hand (Self interest that benefits the Public) and Unreasonableness of Restraints on Market (Good for economy, bad for people)