biology 34

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Anonymous
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52962
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biology 34
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2010-12-02 20:37:21
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vertebrates
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ch 34
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  1. which of the following is a shared characteristic of all chordates
    dorsal, hollow nerve chord
  2. what is one characteristic that separates chordates from all other animals
    post-anal tail
  3. which of these are characteristics of all chordates during at least a portion of their development
    a dorsal, hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal clefts, post-anal tail, *e
  4. which extant chordates are postulated to be msot like the earliest chordates in appearance
    lancelets
  5. external armor of bony plates, no paired lateral fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. in addition it will have
    no jaws
  6. what do craniates have that earlier chordates did not have
    partial or complete skull
  7. which feature excludes it from being a leech?
    its lack of external segmentation
  8. the brain had lian in a sort of panlike structure that only partially surrounded the brain structure is:
    cranium, cartilage
  9. if a hagfish you should see
    a notochord, located underneath a spinal chord
  10. tooth-like object same protein found in
    scales
  11. lampreys differ from hagfishes in
    having a notochord that is surrounded bya tube of cartilage
  12. the feeding mode of the extinct conodonts was
    predation
  13. hagfishes and lampreys have what in common with extinct conodonts?
    the jawless condition
  14. the earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?
    feeding
  15. the endoskeletons of most vertebrates are composed of calcified
    cartilage
  16. why is this concern misplaced?
    lancelets live only in saltwater environments
  17. lamprey species whose larvae live in freshwater streams, but whose adults live most of their lives in seawater, are similar in this respect to certain species of
    actinopterygians
  18. which extant classes did jaws occur earliest?
    chondrichthyes
  19. according to one hypothesis, the jaws of vertebrates were derived by the modification of
    skeletal rods that had supported pharyngeal (gill) slits
  20. what wouldn't have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans?
    swim bladder
  21. distinctive feature of the chondrichthyans
    mostly cartilaginous endoskeleton
  22. which of these are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense?
    chondrichthyan teeth
  23. similarity between sharks and ray-finned fishes?
    they have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure
  24. which groups members have (had) both lungs and gills during their adult lives?
    lungfishes
  25. theres evidence that ray-finned fishes originally evolved in
    freshwater environments
  26. the ray-finned fishes are characterized by
    a bony endoskeleton, operculum, and usually a swim bladder
  27. the swim bladder of ray-finned fishes
    was probably modified from simply lungs of freshwater fishes
  28. dont belong in lobe-fin clade
    chondrichthyans
  29. trend first observed in teh evolution of the earliest tetrapods
    feet with digits
  30. true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods?
    should indicate limited adaptation to life on land
  31. permits reptiles to thrive in arid environments
    scales contain the protein keratin, helps prevent dehydration
  32. not considered an amniote
    amphibians
  33. amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough because
    allows incubation of eggs in a terrestrial environment
  34. age of reptiles
    mesozoic
  35. added most to vertebrate success in relativel dry environments
    amniotic egg
  36. snakes most likely descended from
    lizards
  37. characteristic of most extant reptiles and most extant mamals
    keratinized skin
  38. most dinosaurs and pterosaurs became extinct at the close of the
    cretaceous era
  39. only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs
    birds
  40. examination of the fossils of archaeopteryx reveals that in common with extant birds it had
    feathers
  41. significance of fossil archaeopteryx
    phylogenetic relatedness of birds and reptiles
  42. structure possesesed only by birds
    feathers and keeled sternum
  43. number 8
    mammals
  44. number 6
    birds
  45. pair of numbers represents extinct reptiles that had returned to an aquatic life
    1 and 2
  46. extent nonbird reptiles
    3 and 4
  47. during chordate evolution sequence from earliest to most recent
    A 2,3,4,1,5
  48. sheet f muscle called the diaphragn found in
    mammals
  49. differentiation of teeth is observed in
    mammals
  50. characteristic of all mammals, only mammals
    giving birth to live young
  51. determine whether a fossil represents a reptile or a mammal
    examine the teeth
  52. trend in hominin evolution
    increased brain to body ratio
  53. primates differ from all mammals
    opposable thumbs in many species
  54. vertebrates that fertilization is exclusively internal
    reptiles and mammals
  55. scales closely resmble teeth in both structure and origin
    chondrichthyans
  56. internal fertilization, amniotic egg, skin that resists drying, heavy bones
    nonbird reptiles
  57. egg-laying, pouched, placental
    mammals
  58. lungs, gillsa nd use skin as respiratoy surface
    amphibians
  59. no urinary bladder, females with one ovary, no teeth
    birds
  60. most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates
    feathers
  61. hominin traits occured before the others
    bipedalism
  62. trait associated with adoption of bipedalism
    repositioning of foramen magnum
  63. human evolution
    fossil evidence indicates that early anthropoids were arboreal, cat-sized
  64. humans and apes are classified in same category except
    genus
  65. hominoids
    orangutans
  66. most primitive hominin discovered to date
    walked on two legs
  67. first to have adapted for long-distance bipedalism
    h. ergaster
  68. first to craft stone tools
    h. habilis.
  69. first members migrate out of africa
    h. erectus
  70. direct ancestory of h. neanderthalensis
    h. heidelbergensis
  71. symbolic thought, art, full-blown language
    h. sapiens
  72. biologist agreee
    humans and apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor
  73. human evolution
    different species of the genus homo have coexsisted at various times
  74. oldest fossil remains of homo sapiens found
    195,000
  75. homo erectus
    fossils not limited to africa
  76. most inclusive group of all whose members have foramina magna centrally positioned in the base of the cranium
    anthropoids
  77. apes
    hominoids
  78. one extant species
    homo
  79. most inclusive group whose members have fingernails instead of claws
    primates
  80. most inclusive groupp whose members have fully opposable thumbs
    anthropoids

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