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- A Benedictine monastery founded in Burgundy (France) in 910 that began monastic reforms and clerical hierarchy (no more secular leaders).
- * Directly subject to the Pope (no one else).
- * All Benedictine houses subordinate to Cluny.
- a position created in the 10th century.
- They acted as advisors and administrative assistants to the popes, they now had more powers.
- The college of cardinals held administrative duties and created continuity in papal policy.
- A practice where secular rulers ceremonially granted clerics the symbols of their office.
- When Pope Gregory VII decreed against the practice, Henry the IV refused to back down, knowing it would weaken his authority as king.
Went against Pope Gregory VII in Lay Investiture Struggle and was ex-communicated from the church.
Concordat of Worms of 1122 (i)
- Meeting at the end of the Struggle over Investiture:
- * German Emperor forbidden to invest prelates with religious symbols of their office.
- * Allowed to invest them with symbols of their rights as temporal rulers.
- Claimed ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
- Cases supposed to originate in courts of bishops
- Cases in canon law courts and appeals increased, which increased the power of the papacy.
Pope Innocent III
- Elected to papacy at 37.
- Trained in theology and studied canon law.
- Wanted to unify Christendom under the papacy.
- Wanted the papacy to have a solid territorial base of support; succeeded in controlling and having a hand in the rule of many European nations: (Placed Frederick II in German throne, admonished King Phillip of France, forced John in England to accept Archbishop of Canterbury title)
Boniface VIII (i)
- Had two disputes with the kings of England and France. During his tenure, the papacy started to lose power, and national monarchies began to gain subject's loyalties.
- 1st Dispute:
- Innocent III's clerical taxes for crusade support. Kings start to collect their own taxes for war, Boniface says "stop," England and France say, "no," Boniface backs down.
- 2nd Dispute:Philip IV (France) wants to try a bishop for treason. Pope says no again, France says yes, Pope is defeated. Philip goes on to charge Boniface with heresey, captures and arrests him. Local citizens set Boniface free, but he dies a month later.
the 1st Crusade was the only successful one.
Pope Urban II
- Called the 1st Crusade to further the policies of Pope Gregory VII.
- Conceived if a great crusade to the Holy Land to achieve gains.
- - bring the Greek Orthodox Church back under Roman
- -Embarrass the German Emperor
- -Sent out fighters in hopes of achieving peace in Italy
- -Goal of reacquiring Jerusalem.
- Main centers of European education.
- Located in the growing towns
- Papal Monarchy supported their development.
- -Ordered all cathedrals set aside income for one schoolteacher.
- -Felt it would enlarge the number of well-trained clerics and church admin.
University of Bologna (i)
- Earliest Italian University, gained prominence in study of law.
- After 1200 Bologna and Paris regarded as prototypic universities.
- Areas throughout Italy, Spain, and Southern France followed the Bologna model.
- Students constituted the corporation
- -They hired the teachers and paid the teacher's salaries.
- -Students could fine or discharge them for neglect of duty of inefficient instruction.
University of Paris (i)
- Earliest Italian University, gained prominence in study of law.After 1200 Bologna and Paris regarded as prototypic universities.
- Followed by Universities in Northern Europe (England, etc.).
- Guild of teachers with four faculties (Arts, Theology, Law, and Medicine). Each faculty was headed by a dean.
Black Death (i)
- 1347-1350, but returned in random intervals for the next 100-years.
- A combination of the Bubonic (not necessarily fatal) and Pneumonic (highly infectious and fatal) Plagues.
- The fleas from infected rats transmitted the disease to humans.
- Symptoms: High Temp, Aching Limbs, Swellings of the Lymph Nodes (and coughing blood for Pneumonic).
- 1/3 of the total population of Europe disappeared.
French Jaquerie of 1358 (i)
- Seen as aimless, incoherent outbreak (May 28th-Jun 10th)
- A reaction against the unendurable conditions.
- Jaques was a common nickname for french peasants.
- Political chaos in N. france after the Battle of Poitiers (England beat France).
- Peasants suffering under the conditions of lands being burned and pillaged, rose in revolt in the village of St. Leu (N. of Paris).
- Mob of villagers attacked a group of soldiers and killed 4 knights and 5 squires.
- Peasants claimed that nobles were traitors and deserved to be punished, never blamed the king.
- Took over the city of Meaux and took the Dauphin's wife hostage.
- Charles the Bad invited the peasant leader to negs and had him killed. Rebellion ended.
English Peasant's Rebellion of 1381 (i)
- Disciplined movement aimed at specific reforms.
- Came close to toppling government in England.
- Again, rebels were against the system, but not the King.
- Several new taxes to finance the war in France sparked the rebellion.
- It starts as an attack on tax collectors in Essex, expands from there.
- Leader is Wat Tyler, and Radical Preacher John Ball
- Revolt reached London where King Richard (14 at the time) negotiated when riding out to meet the rebels. He agrees to their demands, and signed charters of freedom.
- Tyler takes the tower of London and beheads two people.
- Richard meets with Tyler, and Tyler is killed shortly after.
- Richard declares himself rebel leader as their king and dispels the riots. Over the following months, he revokes the pardons and negates his agreement to demands, trying and sentencing most participants.
King Richard II
King of England during the 1300s, and during the Peasant's Rebellion.
Leader of the English Peasant's rebellion in London. Captured the Tower of London during the Rebellion and beheaded two people before being killed.
Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy
- Papacy in Avignon
- -Popes pursued policy of centralizing Church government
- Papal finance (systemization of dues collected from clergy).
- Clergy becomes alienated, mainly because of the monetary payments.
- Papacy losing respect and loyalty due to a life of luxury during these hard times.
- French College of Cardinals pressured to name an Italian pope. They name Urban, but he is not the puppet they hoped for, so they claim a do-over and try to replace Urban with Clement VII (a frenchman) but both continue to claim papacy. This leads to the Great Schism.
Great Schism (i)
- After naming Italian Urban VI Pope, the College of Cardinals try to revoke his authority and name Clement VII instead.
- Both continue to claim papacy, Clement in Avignon and Urban in Rome.
- Clement was supported by the previous college of cardinals (predominantly French) while Urban named a new Italian College of Cardinals.
- France, Scotland, Castile and Aragon recognized Clement VII as pope, while the rest of europe recognized Urban VI as the true pope in Rome.
- This divided the monastic orders into Roman and Avignonese divisions.
- in 1409 Council of Prelates meet in Pisa, representatives from both colleges, their goal was to depose both popes and start over--neither Clement or Urban approved or accepted the decision. Now there are three popes claiming power.
- The Schism ended in 1417 when the Council of Constance denounced all standing popes and named Martin V the new pope, restoring church unity.
Italian Territorial Papacy
Council of Constance
- First meeting was in 1417, to solve the three-pope problem.
- Council meetings were established to create a balanced council government for the church. The council was named higher in authority than the pope in church matters.
- Oxford Theologian
- Beleived a certain number of people would be saved and damned.
- His followers were the Lollards.
- He was charged with heresy, but died before he was executed.
- Many of John Wyclif's ideas were brought to Prague, the center of Bohemia at the time, and adopted by a preacher there, John Hus.
- He called for an end to ecclesiastical corruption.
- During the Great Schism, the king of bohemia protected Hus.
- He defended his views at the Council of Constance and was tried for heresy and burned.
- His followers were the Hussites
- First Tudor King
- Eliminated rival claimants to the throne
- Avoided expensive foreign wars
- Built up a financial surplus
- Reasserted royal power over the aristocracy
the practice of buying and selling positions in the Church.
Pope Gregory VII
- (1073-1085) created a new conception of the church in the life of people. Church now responsible for setting the right order and example. Demanded obedience and chastity from clergy. Viewed secular leaders as subordinates who should be ruled under the church.
- Enforced decree against Lay Investiture.
- Ex-communicated Henry IV because of lay investiture and declared Henry stripped of all powers as a earthly ruler.
- Hussites were the followers of John Hus, and his proposed reforms to the Church.
- After his burning for heresy in 1415, they staged a revolt and defeated knights from Germany while lead by a blind general, John Zizka.
- In 1434, the Conservative Hussites overcame the radicals and ended the attempts for a purified religious order.
- Bohemia split from the Catholic Church until after the reformation in 1600s.
Hundred Years War
- 1337-1453 (116 years, not an ongoing, consecutive, or accumulative war) between England and France.
- Mostly fought in Northern France and the Low Countries.
- Ends in 1453, France regains territory and England loses possessions in France.
- Followers of John Wyclif and his reforms.
- They believed:
- Pious Christians should shun the Church
- Study the Bible and rely on their consciences
- A town in Northern France which was the center of the Wool Trade.
- After the crusades, Flanders was an important trading center, and was a fief of the French Crown.
- Aristocracy of Flanders was loyal to the French Crown, the workers and traders were loyal to the English who were their main source of fleece and trade.
Joan of Arc (i)
- Born 1412 to well-to-do French peasants in Domrey-Champagne, France
- Deeply Religious household, no formal education.
- In her adolescence she heard the voice of three saints (Michael, Catherine, and Margaret). They told her her duty was to expel the English from France, and to have the Dauphin, Charles VII, crowned king.
- Went to Orleans to join the army at 17, inspired the troops and defeated the English, rescuing the city of Orleans.
- Captured by the Burgundians after Charles crowned king and sold to the English.
- English Church authorities tried her for sorcery and witchcraft, the French did not intervene. Joan is condemned a heretic and burned at the stake.
- 20 years later, a new trial rehabilitates her name, and in 1920 she is canonized as a saint, and the second patron saint of France.
Wars of the Roses
- Between 1307 and 1485 there are nine English Kings, 5 of which die violently because of revolts and conspiracies.
- War of the Roses: 1455-1485
- Red Rose of Henry's family of Lancaster
- White Rose of rival house of York
- The Yorks gain the kingship, but are replaced by a new dynasty in 1485 (the Tudors, with King Henry VII)
- This begins a new period in English History.
Kievan Rus (State)
Principality established by Swedish Vikings in Russia under/out of the Mongol state
- Commander of the Mongols during the 1200s, grandson of Genghis Khan.
- In 1240 he overruns Kiev and creates his own state on the lower Volga River: The Khanate of the Golden Horde.
Khanate of the Golden Horde
State created o the lower Volga River by Batu, a Mongol general.
- In 1386, Poland's Queen married the Grand Duke of Lithuania, doubling Poland's size and becoming an expansionist state.
- They continue to spread their borders
- Roman Catholic religion
- This makes them an easy "outsider/Western" target for Russia/Moscow
Ivan III (the Great) (i)
- Turned Grand Duchy of Moscow into the Empire of Russia
- Ivan renounces subservience to the Mongols in 1480, Mongols are cool with it.
- Starts to annex different principalities between Moscow and Poland-Lithuania.
- Becomes Tsar/Czar of all Russias and marries last successor of the Byzantine Emperors
- Builds the Kremlin
- His son is Ivan (the Terrible) IV
- Fortified Residence in Moscow, built by Ivan the Great.
- Built to display imperial splendor
- Bears the insignia of Byzantine double-headed eagle.
Ottoman Empire (i)
- Reaches height in 16th c.
- Bridged 3 continents (Europe, Asia, Africa)
- Turkish nomadic people inhabit the steppes of Central Asia
- They voluntarily convert to Islam, which unites the tribes and allows contact with Arab warriors, traders, and missionaries.
- Become noble fighters
- by mid 11th c. most Muslim states ruled by Turks.
- Warriors of the faith within the Ottoman/Anatolian Empires
- Relished camaraderie of campaigns.
- One of two Ottoman Empire Dynasties. The other is the Ottoman Dynasty...how original.
- The Seljuk were a family of fighters.
- 1055- entered Baghdad and made the Caliph their puppet.
- 1071-Seljuk sultan, Alp Arsian defeated the Byzantine Emperor and creates a centralized monarchy in Anatolia
- Mongols conquer and disperse the Seljuk Dynasty in the 13th c.
- A Christian Church in Istanbul that was converted into a mosque when the Ottomans conquered the city.
- It was reinforced, turned into a palace, and it's complex buildings overlooked three waterways.
- Constructed of wood, had to be rebuilt more than once because of fire and earthquakes
- Suleiman the Magnificent/the Lawgiver
- Climax of the Ottoman Empire and civilization
- Empire achieved greatest territorial extent
- high level of prosperity.
- Rich flowering in Literature and the arts
- Started the decline of the empire by leaving his grand vizier to conduct the business, gradually abandoning the role of vigorous leadership
- Chieftain who founded the Ottoman Dynasty of Anatolia in the 14th c.
- Creates a stronghold near Constantinople.
Sultan Mehmed II (i)
- First sultan to regain Ottoman control over the Mongols.
- Wants to conquer Constantinople as a symbol of strength.
- Brings large land and naval forces for a seven week siege. Becomes known as Mehmed the Conqueror
- Makes Constantinople the capital (Anatolia, the Balkins parts of Eastern Europe, Syria, Iraq, Western Arabia, Egypt, and the N. African Coast). Renames the city Istanbul and offers inducements to Muslims to repopulate the city.
- Scholars and interpreters of law
- influenced education, charities, and the judiciary
- Played a prominent part in public and private affairs in the Ottoman Government.
- Slaves in the Ottoman state
- Sultans would systematically collect/recruit slaves, mainly Christians, for government.
- Christian boys would be picked, converted to Islam, educated for government employment.
- By giving the slaves governmental positions, the sultan was protecting himself against rebellion.
- the slaves were used first for the army--shock troopers known as Janissaries.
- The Devshirme were used to service the palace and court
- they would be trained to be procedure talented officials for all governmental departments other than religion.
- Separate religious communities within Ottoman Society
- Greek Orthodox Christians, Armenian Christians and Jews.
- They were required to conduct their affairs according to their own religious codes--the community was under the jurisdiction of their spiritual head.
- The spiritual head was responsible to the sultan's officials.
- Think, Fiddler on the Roof.
Formerly the city of Constantinople.