BIO TEST 3

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tuchiyama10
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53030
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BIO TEST 3
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2010-12-02 23:45:17
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  1. preformationism
    the idea that either the egg or the sperm contained a complete preformed individual (homunculus)
  2. how many cells in the human body?
    100 trillion
  3. how many species of animals?
    1.3 million
  4. 2 characteristics of vertebrates
    • 1. enclosed spinal cord
    • 2. elaborate skull
  5. 4 characteristics of chordates
    • 1. notochord
    • 2. hollow nerve cord dorsal to notochord
    • 3. pharyngeal pouches
    • 4. endostyle
  6. epigenesis
    the unfolding development of an organism, in particular the development of a plant or animal from an egg or spore through a sequence of steps in which cells differentiate and organs form
  7. evo-devo uses...
    • 1. molecular developmental biology
    • 2. evolutionary biology
    • main goal: study evolution of the genomic 'toolkit' common to all animals
  8. eon
    • longest division of geological time
    • i.e. eonothem, half a billion years or more
  9. era
    • major division of geological time, usually divided into 2 or more periods
    • i.e. erathem, several hundred million years
  10. epoch
    tens of millions of years
  11. cretaceous was ___ mya. follows ____ and is followed by ___.
    • 145-65 mya
    • jurassic
    • paleogene
  12. jurrassic was ___ mya. follows ____ and is followed by ___.
    • 199-145 mya
    • triassic
    • cretaceous
  13. cambrian was ___ mya. followed by ____.
    • 542-488 mya
    • Ordovician
  14. holocene
    geological epoch that began approx 12kya
  15. gastrulation
    a phase early in the development of most animal embryos during which the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm form
  16. body plan
    a set of morphological and developmental traits
  17. 4 characteristics of bilaterally symmetrical
    • 1. dorsal (top) and ventral (bottom) sides
    • 2. right and left sides
    • 3. anterior (head) and posterior (tail)
    • 4. cephalization (development of a head)
  18. transciptomics
    the study of RNA
  19. how many phyla are there?
    36
  20. when did multicellular life appear?
    1.2 bya
  21. when did bilaterian life appear?
    600 mya
  22. 4 characteristics of animals
    • 1. multicellular eukaryotes
    • 2. lack cell walls
    • 3. bodies held together by collagen
    • 4. nervous tissue and muscular tissue
  23. ectoderm
    layer covering embryo's surface
  24. endoderm
    innermost germ layer lining developing digestive tube (archenteron)
  25. diploblastic
    ecto and endoderms
  26. triploblastic
    ecto, endo, mesoderms (all bilaterians)
  27. embryonic stem cells
    can generate all embryonic cell types
  28. adult stem cells
    cells that generate a limited number of cell types
  29. stages in zygote development
    • 1. zygote
    • 2. 8 cell stage
    • 3. blastula
    • 4. gastrula
  30. blastopore becomes ____ in protostome development
    mouth
  31. blastopore becomes ___ in deuterostome development
    anus
  32. Ecdysozoa
    group of protostome animals including Arthropoda, Nematoda
  33. Lophotrochozoa
    a group of protostome animals including trochozoans and lophophorata
  34. in deuterostome development, cleavage is ___ and ____.
    • radial
    • indeterminate
  35. indeterminate cleavage
    each cell in early stages of cleavage retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo; makes identical twins and embryonic stem cells possible
  36. larva
    sexually immature and morphologically distinct from adult, eventually undergoes metamorphosis
  37. when was the evolutionary big bang?
    535 mya
  38. when was the mass extinction of 22% marine families?
    439 mya
  39. when was the mass extinction of 21% families overall?
    250 mya (end of triassic period)
  40. notochord
    longitudinal, flexible rod b/w digestive tube and nerve cord. provides skeletal support
  41. nerve cord
    develops from plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube dorsal to the notochord; develops into central nervous system
  42. two groups of invertebrate deuterostomes
    • urochordates
    • cephalochordates
  43. example of urochordate
    tunicate. have notochord, lack head
  44. example of chephalochordate
    lancelet
  45. hox genes
    specify the location in an embryo that leads to the development of specific structures in that location
  46. 3 examples of hox genes
    • BF1 - forebrain
    • Otx - midbrain
    • HOx3 - hindbrain
  47. when did craniates come about?
    530 mya
  48. what is unique to craniates?
    neural crest: collection of cells near dorsal margins of closing neural tube in embryo
  49. what is the name for the group that includes sharks, rays, etc?
    Chondrichthyans
  50. the vast majority of vertebrates belong to a clade of gnathostomes called
    Osteichthyes
  51. when did tetrapods come on land?
    360 mya
  52. how many species of amphibians are there?
    6000
  53. when did amphibians come about?
    370 mya
  54. 3 characteristics of amniotes
    • 1. amniotic egg
    • 2. relatively impermeable skin
    • 3. ribcage to ventilate lungs
  55. when did reptiles come about?
    310 mya
  56. 3 characteristics of reptiles
    • 1. scales -> waterproof
    • 2. shelled eggs laid on land
    • 3. most are ectothermic
  57. flight enhances what 4 things in birds?
    • 1. hunting
    • 2. scavenging
    • 3. escape
    • 4. migration
  58. what makes up feathers and wings?
    keratin
  59. 4 characteristics of primates
    • 1. large brain, short jaws
    • 2. forward looking eyes close together for depth perception
    • 3. complex social behavior, parental care
    • 4. fully opposable thumbs (monkeys/apes)
  60. 5 characteristics of humans
    • 1. upright posture, bipedal locomotion
    • 2. larger brains
    • 3. language, symbolic thought
    • 4. manufacture and use of complex tools
    • 5. shortened jaw and digestive tract
  61. when did hominins begin to walk long distances on 2 legs?
    1.9 mya
  62. 4 characteristics of Neanderthals
    • 1. lived in Europe and Near East 200-28kya
    • 2. thick boned, larger brain
    • 3. buried dead
    • 4. made hunting tools
  63. what was the first hominin out of africa?
    Homo erectus, 1.8 mya
  64. when did the Homo sapiens come about, and where?
    195kya in africa
  65. ecological footprint
    area needed to support a population's lifestyle
  66. what is the estimated range of human population?
    10-15 billion
  67. carrying capacity
    the maximum population size the environment can support
  68. what hominin lived 6.5 mya?
    Sahelanthropus tchadensis
  69. what hominin lived 6mya?
    Orrorin tugenesis
  70. what hominin lived 5.75-4.5mya?
    Ardipithecus ramidus
  71. what hominin lived 4.5-4mya?
    Australopithecus anamensis
  72. what hominin lived 3.7-3 mya?
    Kenyanthoropus platyops
  73. what hominin lived 4-3mya?
    Australopithecus afarensis
  74. what hominin lived 3-2.4mya?
    Australopithecus africanus
  75. what hominin lived 2.5 mya?
    Australopithecus garhi
  76. what hominin lived 2.3-1.3mya?
    Paranthropus boisei
  77. what hominin lived 2-1.5mya?
    Paranthropus robustus
  78. what hominin lived 2.4-2.1mya?
    Homo rudolfensis
  79. what hominin lived 2.4-1.6mya?
    Homo habilus
  80. what hominin lived 1.9-1.5mya?
    Homo ergaster
  81. what hominin lived .25mya?
    Homo neanderthalensis
  82. what hominin lived 1.8-?mya
    Homo erectus
  83. what hominin lived .25mya?
    Homo sapiens
  84. cenozoic era was ___ years ago
    65mya
  85. when do animals go to land?
    460 mya
  86. when was the cambrian explosion?
    530 mya
  87. when did the common ancestor live?
    770mya
  88. 3 hypotheses of cambrian explosion
    • 1. new food sources and predator-prey relationships
    • 2. rise in atmospheric O2
    • 3. further evolution of Hox gene complex
  89. how many species of nematodes?
    25k
  90. 5 characteristics of nematodes
    • 1. covered by tough cuticle, must molt
    • 2. alimentary canal, lack circulatory system
    • 3. pseudocoelomates
    • 4. reproduce sexually through internal fertilization
    • 5. parasitic nematodes can redirect cellular functions of hosts to avoid their immune systems
  91. annelids have 3 subgroups
    • 1. Oligochaeta - earthworms
    • 2. Polychaeta - polychaetes
    • 3. Hirudinea - leeches
  92. why both doing "extreme environment" research? (6)
    • 1. discover new ecosystems
    • 2. investigate novel kinds of biology (ecosystem based on chemosynthesis)
    • 3. understand new potentials for sources of bioenergy
    • 4. evolution of early life in 'primitive' hot-vent conditions
    • 5. examine possibility of life on other 'hot' planets
    • 6. new biotechnological applications
  93. how many species of vertebrates?
    52k

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