Flashcards.txt

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Author:
platypie8
ID:
53049
Filename:
Flashcards.txt
Updated:
2010-12-03 02:06:43
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Biology
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Description:
Flashcards of the non-obvious terms from chapters 14, 15, and 16
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  1. Speciation
    process of evolution of new species that occurs when members of similar populations no longer interbreed to produce fertile offspring within their natural environment.
  2. Protocell
    large, ordered structure, enclosed by a membrane, that carries out some life activities, such as growth and division.
  3. Homologous Structure
    structures with common evolutionary origins; can be similar in arrangement, function, or both; provides evidence of evolution from a common ancestor; forelimbs of crocodiles, whales, and birds are examples.
  4. Hominoid
    a group of primates that can walk upright on two legs; includes gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans.
  5. Hominid
    a group of bipedal organisms that includes modern humans and their direct ancestors.
  6. Genetic Drift
    alteration of allelic frequencies in a population by chance events; results in disruption of genetic equilibrium.
  7. Cro-Magnon
    modern form of Homo sapiens that spread throughout Europe between 35 000 and 40 000 years ago; were identical to modern humans in height, skull and tooth structure, and brain size.
  8. Directional Selection
    natural selection that favors one of the extreme variations of a trait; can lead to rapid evolution in a population.
  9. Disruptive Selection
    natural selection that favors individuals with either extreme variations of a trait; can lead to rapid evolution in a population.
  10. Natural Selection
    mechanism for change in populations; occurs when organisms with various adaptations survive, reproduce, and pass their variations onto the next generation.
  11. Reproductive Isolation
    occurs when formerly interbreeding organisms can no longer produce fertile offspring due to the incompatibility of their genetic material or by differences in mating behavior.
  12. Speciation
    process of evolution of new species that occurs when members of similar populations no longer interbreed to produce fertile offspring within their natural environment.
  13. Stabilizing Selection
    natural selection that favors average individuals in a population; results in a decline in population variation.
  14. Vestigial Structure
    a structure in a present-day organism that no longer serves its natural purpose, but was probably useful to an ancestor; provides evidence of evolution.
  15. Divergent Evolution
    natural selection that favors individuals with either extreme variations of a trait; tends to eliminate intermediate phenotypes.
  16. Convergent Evolution
    evolution in which distantly related organisms evolve similar traits; occurs when unrelated species occupy similar environments.
  17. Australopithecine
    early African hominid,that had both apelike and humanlike characteristics. Genus Australopithecus.
  18. Biogenesis
    idea that living organisms only come from other organisms.
  19. Artificial Selection
    process of breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits.
  20. Archaebacteria
    chemosythetic prokaryotes that live in harsh environments, such as deep-sea vents and hot springs.
  21. Anthropoid
    Human-like primates that include New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and hominids.
  22. Analogous Structure
    structures that do not have a common evolutionary origin but are similar in function.
  23. Allelic Frequency
    percentage of any specific allele in a population's gene pool.
  24. Adaptive Radiation
    divergent evolution in which ancestral species evolve into an array of a species to fit a number of diverse habitats.

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