Card Set Information
Fermentation- cheese beer wine
Dehydration- sun or fire
Food industry is the largest industry
About 1/5 of all U.S sales are food related
The bulk of food components are complex organic compounds built from a few principle elements bound in an infinite number of combinations.
Made mainly from organic molecules:
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
What most food is secondarily made up of.
Calcium, Iron, Phosphorus, Sulfur
Inorganic molecules may be present as free ions, as salts, or dissolved in solution in the main food component, water.
Inorganic molecules may be present in
Complex organic molecules. Which drives metabolism
Iron in hemoglobin- transportation of oxygen
Magnesium in chlorophyll-light and electron transport
Major Categories of Distinctly Different Food Components, Proximate Analysis:
Proteins (amino acids)
'as is basis'
Food minus water
'dry basis' (d.b)
'total solids' (T.S)
'non-fat solids' (N.F.S)
Analysis of Official Analytical Chemists, International.
use proximate analysis
How is proximate analysis used?
-Dairy manufacturers use lipid content in the manufacture of butter. Must be > 85% butterfat
-Food processors use moisture content to determine the kind and amount of bacterial growth. Aw of < .65 to inhibit growth
-The total solids (mainly as CHO) is an important part of jam manufacture. Standard of ID > 65% total solids
Both found in minute quantities. We don't need a lot. They are very susceptible to degradation. So great care is taken to retain or fortify foods with both.
Constitute 90-99% of food.
Vitamin C is lost by...
Thiamin is lost by...
Riboflavin is lost by...
Vitamin E is lost by...
O2, UV light
Nutrients which cannot be synthesized by the body in sufficient amounts and thus need to be ingested.
50 such nutrients- amino acids, water soluble vitamins, linoleic acid ect.
Protein includes 9 essential amino acids
Not consumed as a source of energy but for growth maintenance, and repair of tissue.
Requirements decrease with age.
All proteins contain Nitrogen at a level of about 16%