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- Fermentation- cheese beer wine
- Dehydration- sun or fire
Food industry is the largest industry
About 1/5 of all U.S sales are food related
- The bulk of food components are complex organic compounds built from a few principle elements bound in an infinite number of combinations.
- Made mainly from organic molecules:
- Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
- What most food is secondarily made up of.
- Calcium, Iron, Phosphorus, Sulfur
- Inorganic molecules may be present as free ions, as salts, or dissolved in solution in the main food component, water.
Inorganic molecules may be present in
- Complex organic molecules. Which drives metabolism
- Iron in hemoglobin- transportation of oxygen
- Magnesium in chlorophyll-light and electron transport
Major Categories of Distinctly Different Food Components, Proximate Analysis:
- Proteins (amino acids)
- Lipids (fats)
- Carbohydrates (CHO)
- Mineral (ash)
- Water (h2O)
- Includes water
- 'wet basis'
- 'as is basis'
- Food minus water
- 'dry basis' (d.b)
- 'total solids' (T.S)
- 'non-fat solids' (N.F.S)
- Analysis of Official Analytical Chemists, International.
- use proximate analysis
How is proximate analysis used?
- -Dairy manufacturers use lipid content in the manufacture of butter. Must be > 85% butterfat
- -Food processors use moisture content to determine the kind and amount of bacterial growth. Aw of < .65 to inhibit growth
- -The total solids (mainly as CHO) is an important part of jam manufacture. Standard of ID > 65% total solids
- Both found in minute quantities. We don't need a lot. They are very susceptible to degradation. So great care is taken to retain or fortify foods with both.
- Constitute 90-99% of food.
Vitamin C is lost by...
Thiamin is lost by...
Riboflavin is lost by...
Vitamin E is lost by...
- O2, heat
- O2, UV light
- Nutrients which cannot be synthesized by the body in sufficient amounts and thus need to be ingested.
- 50 such nutrients- amino acids, water soluble vitamins, linoleic acid ect.
- Protein includes 9 essential amino acids
- Not consumed as a source of energy but for growth maintenance, and repair of tissue.
- Requirements decrease with age.
- All proteins contain Nitrogen at a level of about 16%