anatomy final

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anatomy final
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2010-12-06 00:06:30
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  1. Central Nervous system
    brain and spinal cord
  2. brain
    • -cerebrum
    • -corpus callosum
    • -cerebellum
    • -limbic system
    • -brainstem
  3. spinal cord
    • -emergeges from the skull through the foramen magnum
    • -courses through the vertebral foramen of the spinal column
  4. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • -contains nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the muscles and sense organs
    • -housed outside of bone
  5. Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
    • -under voluntary control
    • -functional systems:
    • -pyramidal
    • -extrapyramidal
  6. Pyramidal
    • -arises from motor strip
    • -conscious initiation of movement
  7. extrapyramidal
    • -arises from pre-motor strip
    • -provides muscle tone, background support for movement
  8. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    • controls autonomic functions (internal organs and glands)
    • -subsystems:
    • -sympathetic system
    • -parasympathetic system
  9. sympathetic system
    • responds to stimulation through energy expenditure
    • -"fight or flight"
  10. parasympathetic system
    responsible for quieting the body and conserving energy (undo-ing sympathetic stimulation)
  11. Cerebrum
    • -largest structure of nervous system
    • -flat sheet of cells
    • -aka "gray matter"
    • -white matter connects cerebrum to rest of nervous system
    • -divided into right/left hemispheres
    • -5 lobes
    • -wrapped by 3 meningeal linings
  12. lobes of cerebrum
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • occipital
    • temporal
    • insular
  13. meningeal linings of cerebrum
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
    • -protect brain and hold structures in place
  14. Dura mater
    • -two layers of tough lining mostly attached to the skull
    • -most superficial of meninges
    • -extends away from skull to line major divisions of cerebrum
  15. arachnoid mater
    • -many blood vessels through this space
    • -cerebrospinal fluid flows through this layer
  16. pia mater
    • -thin fascia like covering
    • -closely follows the contours of the brain
  17. falx cerebri
    • -seperates 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum
    • -mid-sagital division of cerebrum
  18. falx cerebelli
    seperates 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum
  19. Infoldings of the Dura Mater
    • -falx cerebri
    • -falx cerebelli
    • -tentorium cerebelli
    • -diaphragma sella
  20. tentorium cerebelli
    horizontal dural shelf at the base of the skull that divides the cerebral and cerbellar regions
  21. diaphragma sella
    forms an anterior horizontal boundary between teh cerebrum and optic chasm
  22. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    • surronds CNS
    • -produced by the choroid plexus within each ventricle
    • -flows through 4 ventricles in brain and arachnoid mater
  23. 4 Ventricles
    • -Lateral ventricles (paired)
    • -3rd ventricle
    • -4th ventricle
  24. lateral ventricle
    composed of 4 spaces bounded superiorly by the corpus callosum and extending into each of the lobes of the cerebrum
  25. 3rd Ventricle
    located between the left and right thalami and hypothalami
  26. 4th ventricle
    • -diamond shaped
    • -projects upward from the central canal of the spinal cored and lower medulla
  27. structure of cerebrum
    • -cortex (gray matter)- 6 cell layers
    • -divided into 2 halves
    • -hemispheres connected by corpus callosum (white matter)
    • -divided into 5 lobs
  28. Cell types of Cerebrum
    • -pyramidal cells
    • -nonpyramidal cells
    • -glial cells
  29. pyramidal cells
    involved in motor function
  30. nonpyramidal cells
    • small and star-shaped
    • sensory or intercommunicative in function
  31. glial cells
    • provide nutrition and waste disposal
    • provide blood-brain barrier
  32. 6 layers of Cerebrum
    • -Molecular- contains glial cells and axons from lower layers & receives input from other cortical areas
    • - external granular- contains many small pyramidal cells & receives input from other cortical layers
    • -external pyramidal- contains medum sized pyramidal neurons which send outputs to other cortical areas
    • -internal granular- receives input from thalamus and other cortical areas
    • -internal pyramidal- contains largest pyramidal cells which send output to motor centers beyond the cerebrum
    • -multiform- consists of pyramidal cells that send info to the thalamus
  33. 5 lobes of Cerebrum
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • occipital
    • temporal
    • inular
    • (and limbic systme)
  34. Insula
    • deep to frontal, parietal and temporal
    • beneath lateral sulcus/fissure
    • involved with maintaining the body and with emotion
  35. limbic system
    • deep structures under cerebrum
    • integration pts for info to/from cerebrum and cerebellum to brainstem
    • basal ganglia-motor
    • hippocampus- memory
    • thalamus-sensory
  36. lateral sulcus
    divides temporal lobe form the frontal and anterior parietal lobes
  37. major sulcus
    seperates frontal and parietal lobes
  38. frontal lobe
    • -most cognitive functions
    • -initiation and inhibition of activity
    • -anterior frontal lobe damage can have effects on personality and motivation
    • -posterior frontal lobe damage can lead to speech disorders and paralysis/paresis in limbs
  39. landmarks in frontal lobe
    • frontal operculum (brocas area)
    • orbital region
    • precentral gyrus (motor strip)
    • supplementary motor area (SMA)
  40. frontal operculum (broca's area)
    important for speech motor planning
  41. orbital region
    • region overlying eyes
    • memory, emotion, motor inhibition, intellect
  42. precentral gyrus (motor strip)
    site of initiation of voluntary motor movement
  43. supplementary motor area (SMA)
    motor strip n SMA give rise to corticospinal tract, that innervates sympathetic nervous system
  44. motor control
    • -things close to each other in the body are close to each other in brain
    • -org is contralateral
    • -org is inverted
  45. parietal lobe
    • location for somatic (body) sensory reception
    • sensory integration from all sensory areas
    • -posterior to motor strip
    • -anterior/superior to occipital lobe
    • -superior to temporal lobe
    • contralateral org
  46. landmarks in parietal lobe
    • postcentral gyrus (somatosensory cortex)
    • association areas
    • supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus
  47. postcentral gyrus
    • -sensory counterpart to motor strip
    • org in same way
  48. association areas
    vision, audition, and somatic sense
  49. supramarginal gyrus and anular gyrus
    involved in reading and writing
  50. temporal lobe
    • site of auditory reception
    • key landmarks:
    • -heschl's gyrus (area 41)-all auditory info processed here
    • -area 42- higher order processing region for auditory stimualtion
    • -Wernicke's area (area 22)-damage here results in language damage
  51. occipital lobe
    region responsible for receiving visual stimulation and higher-level visual processing
  52. insula
    • next to subcortex
    • basic body maintenance and emotion
  53. subcortex (limbic system)
    • -the part of the pathway between the sensory and motor structures and the cerebrum where info is integrated
    • -basal ganlia
    • -hippocampus
    • -thalamus
  54. hindbrain
    • primitive part of the brain involved in basic autonomic survival functions and in "low-level" details of movement
    • -cerebellum
    • -brainstem
  55. basal ganglia
    • -paired structure
    • -control/coordination of movement and initiation of movement
    • -connections to thalamus, motor cortex, and somatosensory cortex
    • -substructures:
    • -caudate nucleus
    • -putamen
    • -globus pallidus
  56. hippocampus
    • paired structure
    • -implicated in memory function
    • -communicated with thalamus and temporal lobe
  57. thalamus
    • -paired structure
    • -final, common relay station for sensory info directed toward cerebral cortex
    • -all sensation except olfaction passes through it
  58. cerebellum
    • -automatic motor coordinating center
    • -controls balance, posture, and synergy of voluntary movement
    • -3 lobes: anterior, middle, flocculonodular
    • -3 layers of cells: molecular, purkinje, granular
  59. Anterior lobe of cerebellum
    controls muscle tone operating against gravity
  60. middle lobe of cerebellum
    coordinates fine motor adjustments
  61. flocculonodular lobe of cerebellum
    communicates with the vestibular system and coordinates body position in space
  62. Molecular cell layer and granular cell layer
    connect within cerebellum
  63. purkinje cell layer
    project to nucleii and out of cerebellum
  64. connections of cerebellum
    • connects to brainstem through three penducles:
    • superiro, middle, and inferior
    • -4th ventricle occupies space between the cerebellar peduncles and the brainstem
  65. brainstem
    • -controls basic body functions like heart rate and breathing
    • -connects brain to spinal cord
  66. medulla
    • -of brainstem
    • -consists of transmission pathways
    • -pyramidal tract
    • -pyramidal decussation
  67. pyramidal tract
    carries signals to muscles from cortex
  68. pyramidal decussation
    motor commands from one hemisphere cross to serve the opposite side of the body (juncture for contralateral organization
  69. pons
    • -brainstem
    • -connects motor planning centers of brain to cerebellum
  70. midbrain
    • -brainstem
    • -connecting link between lower and higher brain centers
    • -connects cerebellum to cerebrum and basal ganglia
    • -relays auditory and visual info
  71. cerebrovascular system
    -vascular supply for the brain arises from two arteries: carotid and vertebral
  72. carotid artery
    • divides cerebrovascular system into the right and left internal carotid arteries
    • -L/R internal arteries feed into the circle of Willis
    • -provide blood to brain
  73. vertebral artery
    • divied cerebrovascular system into right and left branches, and feeds into the basilar artery in posterior brain
    • -L/R arteries combine and become the basilar artery which feed into circle of Willis
  74. Circle of Willis
    • series of junctures between arteries that completely encircles the optic chasm
    • -provides redundant pathways for blood flow to regions of cerebral cortex
  75. Cranial nerve I
    goes directly to olfactory areas
  76. Cranial nerve II-IV
    found at the level of the midbrain
  77. cranial nerve V-VIII
    are at the level of the pons
  78. cranial nerves IX-XII
    are found in medulla
  79. GSA
    incoming general sensory info for somatic system
  80. SSA
    incoming special sensory ifo for hearing and vision
  81. GVA
    incoming general sensory info for visceral system
  82. SVA
    incoming special sensory info for taste and smell
  83. GVE
    outgoing autonomic muscle control (for digestion and glands
  84. GSE
    innervation of skeletal musculature
  85. SVE
    innervation of musculature for mastication and deglutition
  86. cranial nerve I olfactory
    • special visceral afferent nerve
    • -not a true cranial nerve because it reaches brain w/out passing through thalamus first
    • -contains sensory fibers
    • -mediate sense of smell
  87. cranial nerve II
    • optic nerve
    • -special afferent nerve
    • -sensory fibers that merge at the optic chiasm
    • -enters brainstem at midbrain
    • -processes visual info
  88. cranial nerve III
    • occulomotor
    • -contains motor fibers for eye movements(general somatic efferent)
    • -serves extrinsic ocular muscles ipsilaterally
    • -also for pupil constriction and focus
  89. cranial nerve IV
    • trochlear
    • -general somatic efferent
    • -contains motor fibers for eye movements
    • -innervates superior oblique muscle contralaterally
    • -turns eye down and in/out
  90. cranial nerve VI
    • abducens
    • -general somatic efferent
    • -contains motor fibers for eye movements
    • -abductor muscle
    • -motor innervation to the lateral rectus ocular muscle
  91. cranial nerve V
    • trigeminal
    • -3 major branches (tri-geminal)
    • -motor supply to the muscles of matication and tensor veli palatini
    • -transmits sensory info form the face
    • -general somatic afferent
  92. cranial nerve VII
    • facial
    • -contains both sensory and motor fibers
    • -supplies muscles of the face and the stapedius in middle ear
    • -serves salivary glands
    • -provides taste for anterior 2/3 of tongue
  93. cranial nerve VIII
    • vestibulocochlear
    • -primarily sensory
    • -special somatic afferent
    • -carries nerves for hearing and balance
    • -efferent portion serves cochlear hair cells that are involved in actively tuning hearing
  94. cranial nerve IX glossopharyngeal
    • contains sensory and motor fibers
    • -serves the face, tongue and phayrnx
    • -posterior tongue and soft palate taste receptors
    • - touch, temp, and pain sense from posterior tongue, faucial pillars, upper pharynx
  95. cranial nerve IX
    • -glossopharyngeal
    • -innervation of stylopharyngus and superior pharyngeal constrictor (special visceral efferent)
    • -innervation of parotid gland for salivaiton (general visceral efferent)
  96. cranial nerve X
    • -vagus
    • "wandering nerve"
    • -runs throughout chest and abdomen
    • -mix of sensory and motor fibers
    • -supplies more visceral structures than any other cranial nerve
  97. branches of vagus (CN X)
    • superior laryngeal nerve
    • recurrent laryngeal nerve
    • pharyngeal branch
  98. superior laryngeal nerve
    -external branch-innervates cricothryroid muscles for pitch control, special visceral

    efferent-internal branch- sensory for the tongue and mucosa of the supralaryngeal area, general visceral afferent
  99. recurrent laryngeal nerve
    • supplies all of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except cricothyroid (sve)
    • supplies subglottal laryngeal muscosa (GVA)
  100. pharyngeal branch
    • -taste (SVA) and sensation (GVA) from base of tongue and upper pharynx
    • -innervation of upper and middle pharyngeal constrictors, plalopharyngeus, lev
  101. cranial nerve XI
    • accessory
    • -contains only motor fibers
    • -SVE
    • -serves muscles of pharynx, soft palate, and neck
  102. cranial nerve XII
    • hypoglossal
    • -motor nerve that supplies:
    • all intrinsic tongue muscles
    • most of extrinsic tongues muscles
    • infrahyoid muscles
    • -GSE
    • -contralateral innervation

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