biochemistry

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Anonymous
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53107
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biochemistry
Updated:
2010-12-03 15:17:55
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biochem
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biochemistry questions
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  1. the organ that acts as the coordination center of the endocrine system is the
    hypothalmus
  2. binding substrates by multiple covalent interactions is NOT a characteristic of the active site,but
    • Characteristics of an active site:
    • 1.having a relatively small part of the enzyme
    • 2.having a well-defined three dimensional shape
    • 3.binds substrates by multiple noncovalent interactions
  3. digestive enzymes such as chymotrypsin and trypsin are often synthesized as long inactive precursors known as
    zymogens
  4. one of the mechanisms by which enzyme activity is regulated is for the product a metabolic pathway to be an inhibitor of an earlier enzyme-catalyzed rxn in the pathway. this type of inhibition is known as
    Feedback inhibition
  5. Methanol poisoning is treated by adminitering large amounts of ethanol.Ethanol replaces methanol in the active site of alcohol dehydrogenase until the methanol can be eliminated from the body.this is an example of
    competitive inhibition
  6. A hormone that is released into the extracellular space and diffuses to nearby cells to evoke its response is classified as
    paracrine
  7. Consider the elementary reaction A + B--> P. this reaction is
    • First order with respect to A
    • First order with respect to B
    • Second order overall

    Ex: [A][B] or 2A
  8. Enzymes catalyze rxns in the forward direction only DOES NOT describe enzymes
    • these describe enzymes:
    • 1.Enzymes are often very specific for their substrates
    • 2.enzyme activities can often be regulated
    • 3.enzymes typically act under milder conditions of temperature and pH than chemical catalysts
    • 4.enzymes typically catalyze rxns at much higher rates than chemical catalysts
  9. in general the first step in a biochemical signaling pathway is the binding of a ligand to a_______,which causes a signal to be transmitted to the interior of the cell.
    receptor protein
  10. a substance that binds to a receptor and evokes a response is a
    agonist
  11. stabilizes the protonated form of the base that removed the proton from the nucleophilic hydroxyl group
    aspartic 102
  12. removes a proton from the hydroxyl group of the nucleophile to make it more nucleophilic
    histadine 57
  13. acts as a nucleophile to attack the carbonyl carbon atom of the scissile peptide bond
    serine 195
  14. Match the coenzyme with its vitamin form:

    coenzyme A
    pantothenic acid
  15. Match the coenzyme with its vitamin form:

    Flavin adenine dinucleotied
    Riboflavin
  16. Match the coenzyme with its vitamin form:

    nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
    niacin
  17. Determine the class of enzyme which catalyzes the following rxns:

    Lactate dehydrogenase
    catalyzes the conversion of the carbonyl group of pyruvate to a hydroxyl group to form lactate with the simultaneous conversion of NADH to NAD+
    oxidoreductase
  18. Determine the class of enzyme which catalyzes the following rxns:

    Pyruvate decarboxylase
    catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide
    Lyase
  19. Determine the class of enzyme which catalyzes the following rxns:

    Alanine transaminase
    catalyzes the movement of an amino group from the amino acid L-glutamate to pyruvate to form a new amino acid L-alanine and a-ketoglutarate
    Transferase
  20. Determine the class of enzyme which catalyzes the following rxns:

    Chymotrypsin
    catalyzes the cleavage of a protein b/t amino acids with bulky or aromatic side chains with the addition of water
    Hydrolase
  21. Determine the class of enzyme which catalyzes the following rxns:

    Pyruvate carboxylate
    catalyzes the addition of carbon dioxide to pyruvate to form oxaloacetate with the hydrolysis of ATP
    Ligase
  22. Determine the class of enzyme which catalyzes the following rxns:

    Phosphoglycerate mutase
    catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate
    Isomerase

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