Reproductive 1

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Reproductive 1
2010-12-07 15:42:09
reproduction genitalia development fetal development embryo

reproduction system anatomy and how it works
Show Answers:

  1. solid ball of cells formed at day 4 of fertilization?
  2. where implantation occurs?
  3. maternal changes during pregnancy?
    • maternal blood volume increase
    • maternal nutrient requirement increase
    • maternal glomerular filtration rate increase
    • RR adn tidal volume increase
  4. what forms the chorion?
  5. where does fertilization of ovum take place?
    upper 1/3 of uterine tube
  6. what suppresses uterine contractions during gestation?
    elevated progesterone levels
  7. what protects fetus from mechanical injury?
    fluid contained in amnion
  8. embryonic period of development covers what time period?
    first 2 mths follow fertilization
  9. what occurs during oocyte activation?
    • metabolic rate of oocyte increase
    • ovum completes meiosis 2
    • cortical reaction occurs
    • other sperm are prohibited from fertilize another egg
  10. 1st stage of labor?
  11. what things does a sperm need to penetrate to fertilize the egg?
    • corona radiata
    • zona pellucida
    • granulosa cells
    • clear glycoprotien layer
  12. polyspermy in humans will make what happen to the zygote?
  13. stage of labor where fetus emerges from vagina?
  14. correct order in time sequence
    1) fertilization
    2) blastocyst
    3) cleavage
    4) zygote
    5) implantation
    6) development of chorionic villi
    • 1) fertilization
    • 2) zygote
    • 3) cleavage
    • 4) blastocyst
    • 5) implantation
    • 6) development of chorionic villi
  15. when throphoblast releases enzymes what happens to endometrium?
    endometrium is digested by enzymes
  16. what happens during amphimixis?
    male and female pronuclei fuse
  17. when do embryologic and early fetal development occur?
    1st trimester
  18. what happens between teh decidua basalis and chorionic villi?
    exchange of gas, nutrients and waste between mother and child
  19. what fills intervillous spaces?
    ONLY mother blood
  20. period of gestation characterized by rapid fetal growth?
    3rd trimester
  21. if you have an ectopic pregnacy what happens?
    implantation occured other then in uterus
  22. why is corpus luteum maintained in early pregnancy?
    keep levels of estrogen and progesterone high enough to maintain endometrium
  23. period of gestation when rudiments of major organ systems appear?
    1st trimester
  24. what portion of endometrium becomes mothers portion of placenta?
    decidua basalis
  25. day 12 of embryonic development what forms a new layer?
  26. what produces human chorionic gonadotropin?
    trophoblast cells of chorion
  27. what period of gestation is considered time when most organ systems complete adn fetus looks like a human?
    2nd trimester
  28. granulation produces oval, 3 layer disc known as?
    embryonic disc
  29. main function of HCG early in pregnancy?
    maintain corpus luteum
  30. process of cell division after fertilization?
  31. what is tested in urine to determine pregnancy?
  32. penetration of endometrium by blastocyst?
  33. ectoderm is to _____as mesoderm is to__________?
    ectoderm is to neural tissue as mesoderm is to cardovascular/lymphatic tissue.
  34. what are blastomeres?
    identical cells produced by early cleavage
  35. when implantation occurs what happens to nutrients? why?
    nutrients are absorbed by trophoblast so it can easily reach inner cell mass through simple diffusion
  36. what is morula?
    solid ball of cells formed after several rounds of cell division following fertilization
  37. by end of gestation, mother blood volume increases by how much?
  38. what is HCG?
    Human chorionic gonadotropin that most pregnancy tests are based on presence or absence of.
  39. blastocyst
    hollow ball of cells
  40. gradual modification of anatomical structures during the period of conception to maturity?
  41. what forms from inner cell mass of blastocyst?
  42. what phase is secondary oocyte in when leaving follicle?
    metaphase of 2nd meiotic division
  43. what happens during implantation to syncytial trophoblast?
    it erodes a path through endometrium
  44. stretching cervix cause what hormone to increase?
  45. what happens to maternal blood vessels in endometrium under influuence of trophoblast?
    they break down and form lacunae
  46. HCG is produced by what?
    trophoblast cells of chorion
  47. stage of gestation where fetus looks like human and organs are complete of most of development
    2nd trimester
  48. why does maternal blood volume increase during pregnancy?
    • hypoxia resulting from fetal demand for o2 stimulate erythropoietin release
    • increase aldosterone secretion promote salt and water retention at kidney
    • decrease venous return d/t blood volume diverted to placenta triggers compensating mechanism
  49. what forms amniotic fluid?
    separation of inner cell mass from trophoblast
  50. during implantation the inner cell mass organizes into what?
  51. what is result of inability of placenta to produce enough relaxin?
    C section
  52. when are germ layers formed?
  53. what does ectoderm form?
    neural tissues
  54. mesoderm forms what ?
  55. where does fertilization take place in body?
    close to junction of ampulla and isthmus of uterine tube
  56. endoderm forms what?
    urinary bladder
  57. what structure forms the extraembryonic membrane forming blood?
    yolk sac
  58. why does fetus strip O2 from mother?
    fetal hemoglobin is higher affinity for O2 then mothers hemoglobin
  59. what structure forms the extraembryonic membrane forming fluid filled sac?
  60. what structure forms extraembryonic membrane forming urinary bladder?
  61. what structure forms the extraembryonic membrane forming fetal portion of placenta?
  62. hormone that increases flexibility of symphysis pubis adn cause dilation of cervix?
  63. hormones produced by placenta?
    • Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
    • human placedntal lactogen (HPL)
    • relaxin
    • progesterone
  64. secondary follicle
  65. secondary follicle
  66. secondary follicle
  67. secondary oocyte
  68. secondary oocyte
  69. secondary oocyte
  70. ampulla of uterine tube
  71. antrum filled with follicular fluid
  72. antrum
  73. antrum
  74. body of uterus
  75. body of uterus
  76. broad ligament
  77. cervical canal
  78. cervical canal
  79. cervix
  80. cervix
  81. cervix
  82. clitoris
  83. clitoris
  84. corpus albicans
  85. corpus luteum
  86. corpus luteum
  87. corpus luteum
  88. endometrial gland
  89. endometrial gland
  90. endometrium
  91. endometrium
  92. endometrium
  93. external os
  94. external os
  95. external os
  96. external os
  97. fimbriae
  98. fimbriae
  99. follicular fluid
  100. fundus of uterus
  101. graafian follicle
  102. graafian follicle
  103. granulosa cells
  104. granulosa cells
  105. where fertilization occurs?
    uterine tubes
  106. what hormone does developing follicle cells secrete?
  107. what triggers surge in lutenizing hormone?
    high levels of estrogen
  108. when does oocyte finish meiosis?
    after fertilization
  109. what happens during proliferative phase of menstruation cycle?
    a new functional layer is formed in the uterus.
  110. function of cremaster muscle?
    Elevate the testes during sexual arousal and exposure to cold
  111. structure (s) that helps to trap blood in penis during ejaculation?
    Corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum
  112. pea sized gland that produces thick alkaline mucous?
    Bulbourethral gland
  113. what is contained in seman?
    • seminal fluid
    • spermatozoa
    • enzymes
    • prostaglandins
  114. spermatagonia?
    stem cells forming sperm
  115. corpus luteum
  116. glans penis
  117. infundibulum of uterine tube
  118. infundibulum