Card Set Information
The vagus nerve slows heart action by transmitting the chemical ____, whereas the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the release of ___ that accelerates the heart rate.
Between each atrium and it's associated valve are the ____.
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle:
Mitral (bicuspid) valve
The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle:
The valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery:
The valve that separates the aorta and left ventricle:
Which needs greater pressure, the systemic or pulmonary circulation?
Which wall is thicker, that of the left or right ventricle?
Most common congenital cardiac lesions:
Most common left-to-right shunt:
atrial septal defect
Second major type of left-to-right shunt:
ventricular septal defect
Third major type of left-to-right shunt:
patent ductus arteriosus
The ductus arteriosus serves to shunt blood from the ___ artery into the ___ during intrauterine life.
pulmonary; systemic circulation
In left-to-right shunts, the flow of blood from the higher pressure aorta to the lower pressure pulmonary artery causes:
increased pulmonary flow, and excess volume of blood returned to elft atrium and ventricle
All left-to-right shunts can be complicated by the development of pulmonary hypertension, or ___.
Most common cause of cyanotic congenital heart disease:
Tatralogy of Fallot
Four abnormalities of Tetralogy of Fallot:
high ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, overriding of aortic orifice, right ventricular hypertrophy
What causes the right ventricular hypertrophy in Tetralogy of Fallot?
Pulmonary stenosis causes elevation of pressure
Narrowing of the aorta that most commonly occurs just beyond the branching of the blood vessels to the head and arms:
Coarctation of the Aorta
Coarctation causes what type of blood pressure?
Normal in arms, low in legs
Factors predisposing to the development of coronary artery disease include:
hypertension, obesity, smoking, high-colesterol diet, and lack of exercise
Inability of the heart to propel blood at a rate and volume sufficient to provide an adequate supply to tissues:
Congestive Heart Failure
Causes of CHF include:
intrinsic cardiac abnormality, hypertension, or any obstruction to normal blood flow
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the extravascular pulmonary tissues:
Most common cause of pulmonary edema:
elevation of pulmonary venous pressure
Most common cuase of elevation of pulmonary venous pressure:
left sided heart failure
Leading cause of strokes and CHF:
High blood pressure is that above:
What causes narrowing of systemic blood vessels and an increased resistance to blood flow?
Long-standing high blood pressure (hypertensive heart disease)
Localized dilation of an artery that most commonly involves the aorta, especially it's abdominal portion:
A ___ aneurysm involves only one side of the arterial wall while a ____ aneurysm involves th bluging of the entire circumference of the vessel wall:
An aneurysm represents a:
weakness in the wall of a blood vessel
Presence of multiple small aneurysms is suggestive of generalized:
arterial inflammation (arteritis)
Most aortic dissections occur in patients with:
Arteries marked by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial wall:
Major cause of vascular disease of the extremities:
Autoimmune disease that results from a reaction of the patient's antibodies against antigens from a previous strep infection:
The major damage of rheumatic fever is to the:
valves of the heart; most frequently mitral and aortic
Development of nodules or vegetations forming on heart valves caused by deposists of bacteria or fungi:
Accumulation of fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart:
Pericardial effusion may result from:
bacteria, viruses, or neoplastic involvement
Major source of potentially fatal pulmonary embolism; primarily involves the lower extremeties:
Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT)
Precipitating factors of DVT:
trauma, bacterial infection, prolonged bed rest, and oral contraceptives
DVT may be the earliest symptom of an unsuspected malignancy of the:
pancreas, lung, or GI system
Heart rate is controlled by the ____ nervous system:
Oxygenated blood reaches the heart muscle by way of the:
right and left coronary artery
Arterial disease caused by fatty deposits on the inner arterial wall is termed:
What radiographic procedure is used to determine the presence of coronary artery disease?
The procedure in which a balloon is used to dilate narrowed coronary arteries is named:
percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
What is the modality of choice for demonstration of and abdominal aortic aneurysm?
The ___ of the heart are the major site of damage from rheumatic fever.
Most sensitive and specific noninvasive method of diagnosing mitral stenosis:
Invasive procedure for determining deep vein thrombosis:
Most acurate screening procedure for assessing renovascular lesions: