Is a social construction. group of people who are believed to be a biological group sharing genetically transmitted traits that are defined as important.
Status that most is most important between ascribed and achieved. ex: sex
Quality that you were born with. ex: gender,race
People who share a common historical and cultural hertiage and sense of group identity and belongingness.
Superior to other races other than your race.
view that certain racial or ethnic groups are biologically inferior and that practices involving their domination and exploitation are therfore justified. ex: skinheads, Nazis.
Believe your culture is superior to another culture.
Group who members share distinct physical or cultural characteristics; are denied access to power and resources available to other groups. (Polictics)
Culture,language, religion, nationality
group toward which we feel positively & which we identify. Feeling positive about one's own group. ex: crips, sons of death, sureno
Ex: bloods, color of blood,norteno
Refer to behavior,particulary unequal treatment of people because they are members of a particulary group.
Split labor market
There are two groups of workers willing to do the same work, but for different wages. (Edna Bonacich) 1972
a subordinate group provides cheap labor that benefits the dominant group and is then further exploited by having to purchase expensive goods and services from dominant group. ex: US not only provide cheap labor, but also purchase health care,televisions,food and other products that provide substanial profit to dominant groups. (Bob Liner) Berkeley Professor.
inequitable treatment of a group resulting from practices or policies that are incorporated into social, political, or economic institutions and that operate independently from the prejudices of individuals.
rigid and oversimlified images in which each element or person in a category is assumed to possess all the characteristics associated with that caterory.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Segregation was unequal. Law of the land.(1896) (1962) Black,Latino were kicked out of the green frog.
Brown v. The Board of Education
separate but equal doctrine was unconstitutional.(1954) Blacks and whites could go to school together.
irrational attitude toward certain people based solely on their membership in a particular group. Individuals are prejudged on the basis of whatever undesirable characteristics the whole group is presumed to possess. Prejudices can be positive, but often negative.
blending of racial/ethnic identities.process by which a racial or ethnic minority loses its distinctive identity and way of life and becomes absorbed into the dominant group. Between 1830-1950Social policy. Forced Indians,Blacks. Voluntary. Earliest Euporean immigrants to North America.
When a number of racial/ethnic groups live side by side, each retaining a distinct indentity and lifestyle while still participating in some aspects of the larger culture. ex:The noction that they should be able to come to us to work. ex:wear their own clothes. (DEB Dubois)
To share fully in the American dream, immigrants have been required to renounce their ancestral culture in favor of the beliefs,values, and lifestyle of the dominant (WASP). white Anglo-Saxon Protestants.
placing the blame for one's trouble on an individual or group incapable of offering effective resistance.
social policy that mandated Blacks & Whites and had to have separate. (1896-1964).
De facto Segregation
Chapter 7 Sex
biological role that each of us plays in reproduction.
learned behavior invovling how we are expected to act as males and females in society.
ideology based that men are more superior than women.
Instrumental tasks/Functionalist Perspective
Men. activities of a group, such as hunting,building something, or maning a work team.
Expressive tasks/Functionalist Perspective
Women. Activities focused on the relationships between people and on maintaining happiness,harmony, and emotional stability in a group.
belefs about appropriate masculine and feminine behavior.ex: fathers typically "rougher with the boys and gentler with the girls.
The Schools/Interactionist Perspective
School systems are characterististically staffed in such a way that children's perceptions of masculinity/femininity are reinforced. Schools and teachers treat children differently based on gender, with signficant conquences for what children learn about their gender.
Portrays sterotyped gender roles.
collective activities of individuals,groups, and organizations whose goals is the fair and equal treatment of women and men around the world.
any substances,that when consumed, alters one or more of the functions of the human body.
drugs that can be produce major alterations in the mood, emotions, perceptions,or brain functioning of the person who takes them.
The continued use of a psychoactive substance at a level that violates approved social practices.
Mental or physical craving for a drug and withdrawal symptons when use of the drug is stopped.
Physical dependence on a drug.
Physical changes that results in the need for higher doses of the drug to acheive the same effect.
occurs when the withdrawl symptons of one drug are alleviated by another drug in the same pharmacological class.
A situation in which tolerance built up to one drug leads to a reduced response to another drug in the same pharmacological class.
Psycohactive drug that any adult in the U.S. can purchase legally without a prescription.
Consuption of alcohol at a level that produces serious personal,social, or health consequences, such as martial problems, occupational difficulties, accidents, or arrest.
Perception made from a plant of the genus Cannabis, usually consumed by smoking it like tobacco.
Many drugs whose major effect is to stimulate the CNS.
Psychoactive drugs that depress the CNS and have some analgestic, or painkilling, properties.
When two depressants are taken at the same time.
Psychoactive drugs whose main use is toanalgesics, or painkillers. ex: opium,morphine,codeine.
Psychoactive drugs that produce hallucinations,often of a visual nature. ex:LSD,PEYOTE,MESCALINE.
Chapter 14 Violence
Behavior that is intended to bring pain or physical injury to another person or to harm or destroy property.
Of most crime and spouse abuse where small numbers of people are pursuing their own personal goals or are responding to the stresses of an immediate situation.
organized violence by relatively large groups of people to promote or resist some social policies or practices.
strife or conflict that is threatening to the public order and that involves the government in some fashion, either as a party to the conflict or as a guardian of the public interest.
began when whites attacked blacks in raciallycontested areas. ex:1943 Detroit experiencing a large influx of blacks from the South. Fritions arose as the growing population of blacks spilled over into previously all white areas.
focus of hostility is the property, merchandise, or equiptment rather than people of another racial group. These riots have occurred in neighborhoods that had been inhabited mostly by African Americans.Many riots of this sort occurred in the 1960s during the struggle over civil rights.
an organized action by some group to rebel against the existing government and to replace it with new political forms and leadership.
The attempt to achieve political goals by using fear and intimidation to disrupt the normal operations of a society.
an inability to achieve sought-after goals.
The fact that people tend to feel deprived of frustrated in comparison to what others have or what they believe they deserve.
War could be avoided if the enemy realized that any agressor against the United States would suffer overwhelming damages from the massive retaliation with the U.S military might.
Mutually assured destruction
War can be prevented when each side has the might to destroy the other.
Balance of power
A nuclear holocaust is avoided because the military capability of one side roughly balances that of the other side.
Chapter 15 Education
The systematic, formal process through which specialized teachers transmit skills, knowledge, and values to students.
going to school
completion of attainment of degree ?
The higher level of skill and educationneeded for occupations today.
or ability of grouping, refers to clustering people together into classes or tracks within classes that contain students of comparable abilities or students with similar educational goals. ex: assumption that students will be better able to learn if they are in a classroom with others who have equal ability.
SAT. Since the 1960s has fallen. Verbal SAT scores have been steady and math scores have risen since 1980.
Students are taught in both English and their native language until their English competency is sufficient to become the sole language of instruction.