Chapter 9&10

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Chapter 9&10
2010-12-03 18:15:48

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  1. Algorithms
    Strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem.
  2. approach coping
    Directly confronting a problem with active attempts to solve it.
  3. artificial intelligence (AI)
    The science of creating machines capable of performing activities that require intelligence when they are done by people.
  4. availability heuristic
    A prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events.
  5. avoidant coping
    Coping with a problem by trying one's best to ignore it.
  6. classical model
    Model stating that all instances of a concept share defining properties.
  7. Cognition
    The way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing.
  8. cognitive appraisal
    Individuals' interpretation of the events in their lives as harmful, threatening, or challenging and their determination of whether they have the resources to cope effectively with the events.
  9. Concepts
    Mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics.
  10. confirmation bias
    The tendency to search for and use information that supports, rather than refutes, our ideas.
  11. convergent thinking
    Thinking that produces one correct answer; characteristic of the type of thinking required on traditional intelligence tests.
  12. Coping
    Managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve life's problems, and seeking to master or reduce stress.
  13. Creativity
    The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unconventional solutions to problems.
  14. culture-fair tests
    Intelligence tests that are intended to be culturally unbiased.
  15. decision making
    Evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.
  16. deductive reasoning
    Reasoning from the general to the specific.
  17. divergent thinking
    Thinking that produces many answers to the same question; characteristic of creativity.
  18. emotion-focused coping
    Responding to the emotional aspects of stress rather than focusing on the problem causing the stress.
  19. Expertise
    The quality of having a particular talent—that "something special"—for the things that one does in a particular domain.
  20. Fixation
    Using a prior problem-solving strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh, new perspective.
  21. functional fixedness
    A type of fixation in which individuals fail to solve a problem because they are fixated on a thing's usual functions.
  22. Gifted
    Descriptive of individuals who have an IQ of 130 or higher and/or superior talent in a particular area.
  23. Heritability
    The proportion of the IQ differences in a population that is attributed to genetic differences.
  24. Heuristics
    Shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest, but do not guarantee, a solution to a problem.
  25. hindsight bias
    The tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome.
  26. inductive reasoning
    Reasoning from the specific to the general or from the bottom-up.
  27. infinite generativity
    The ability to produce an infinite number of sentences using a relatively limited set rules.
  28. Intelligence
    Problem-solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life's everyday experiences.
  29. intelligence quotient (IQ)
    An individual's mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100.
  30. Language
    A form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols.
  31. mental age (MA)
    An individual's level of mental development relative to that of others.
  32. mental retardation
    A condition of limited mental ability in which the individual has a low IQ, usually below 70, has difficulty adapting to everyday life, and has an onset of these characteristics in the so-called developmental period.
  33. Mindfulness
    Being alert and mentally present for one's everyday activities.
  34. Morphology
    A language's rules for word formation.
  35. normal distribution
    A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve with a majority of the scores falling in the middle of the possible range and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range.
  36. open-mindedness
    Being receptive to the possibility of other ways of looking at things.
  37. phonics approach
    An approach to learning to read that emphasizes basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
  38. Phonology
    A language's sound system.
  39. problem solving
    An attempt to find an appropriate way of attaining a goal when the goal is not readily available.
  40. problem-focused coping
    The cognitive strategy of squarely facing one's troubles and trying to solve them.
  41. prototype model
    Model emphasizing that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a "family resemblance."
  42. Reasoning
    The mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions.
  43. Reliability
    The extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance.
  44. Semantics
    The meaning of words and sentences in a particular language.
  45. Standardization
    Developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms for the test.
  46. Subgoaling
    Setting intermediate goals or defining intermediate problems in order to be in a better position to reach the final goal or solution.
  47. syntax
    A language's rules for the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences.
  48. thinking
    Manipulating information mentally, as when we form concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and reflect in a creative or critical manner.
  49. triarchic theory of intelligence
    Sternberg's theory that there are three main types of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical.
  50. whole-language approach
    • An approach to learning to read that stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child's natural language learning; so reading materials should be whole and meaningful.
  51. Androgens
    The class of sex hormones that predominate in males; they are produced by the testes in males and by the adrenal glands in both males and females.
  52. anorexia nervosa
    An eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
  53. broaden-and-build model
    A model emphasizing that the key to the adaptiveness of positive emotional states lies in their effects on our attention and our ability to build resources.
  54. bulimia nervosa
    An eating disorder in which the individual consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern.
  55. Cannon-Bard theory
    Theory stating that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously.
  56. Catharsis
    The release of anger or aggressive energy by directly or vicariously engaging in anger or aggression; the catharsis hypothesis states that behaving angrily or watching others behave angrily reduces subsequent anger.
  57. display rules
    Sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed.
  58. Drive
    An aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need.
  59. Emotion
    Feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal, conscious experience, and behavioral expression.
  60. Estrogens
    The main class of female sex hormones, produced principally by the ovaries.
  61. extrinsic motivation
    Motivation that involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments.
  62. facial feedback hypothesis
    The idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them.
  63. hierarchy of needs
    Maslow's view that individuals' main needs are satisfied in the following sequence: physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization.
  64. Homeostasis
    The body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state.
  65. human sexual response pattern
    Identified by Masters and Johnson, the four phases of physical reactions that occur in humans as a result of sexual stimulation. These phases are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
  66. Instinct
    An innate (unlearned), biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species.
  67. intrinsic motivation
    Motivation that is based on internal factors such as organismic needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), as well as curiosity, challenge, and effort.
  68. James-Lange theory
    Theory stating that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment.
  69. Motivation
    The force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do.
  70. Need
    A deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation.
  71. Polygraph
    A machine that monitors bodily changes thought to be influenced by emotional states; it is used by examiners to try to determine whether someone is lying.
  72. self-actualization
    The highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs; the motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being.
  73. self-determination theory
    A theory of motivation that proposes that three basic, organismic needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) characterize intrinsic motivation.
  74. self-regulation
    The process by which an organism pursues important objectives, centrally involving getting feedback about how we are doing in our goal pursuits.
  75. set point
    The weight maintained when no effort is made to gain or lose weight.
  76. sexual orientation
    The direction of the person's erotic interests, whether heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual.
  77. two-factor theory of emotion
    Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is determined by two main factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labeling.
  78. Yerkes-Dodson law
    Principle stating that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than low or high arousal.