Strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem.
Directly confronting a problem with active attempts to solve it.
artificial intelligence (AI)
The science of creating machines capable of performing activities that require intelligence when they are done by people.
A prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events.
Coping with a problem by trying one's best to ignore it.
Model stating that all instances of a concept share defining properties.
The way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing.
Individuals' interpretation of the events in their lives as harmful, threatening, or challenging and their determination of whether they have the resources to cope effectively with the events.
Mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics.
The tendency to search for and use information that supports, rather than refutes, our ideas.
Thinking that produces one correct answer; characteristic of the type of thinking required on traditional intelligence tests.
Managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve life's problems, and seeking to master or reduce stress.
The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unconventional solutions to problems.
Intelligence tests that are intended to be culturally unbiased.
Evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.
Reasoning from the general to the specific.
Thinking that produces many answers to the same question; characteristic of creativity.
Responding to the emotional aspects of stress rather than focusing on the problem causing the stress.
The quality of having a particular talent—that "something special"—for the things that one does in a particular domain.
Using a prior problem-solving strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh, new perspective.
A type of fixation in which individuals fail to solve a problem because they are fixated on a thing's usual functions.
Descriptive of individuals who have an IQ of 130 or higher and/or superior talent in a particular area.
The proportion of the IQ differences in a population that is attributed to genetic differences.
Shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest, but do not guarantee, a solution to a problem.
The tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome.
Reasoning from the specific to the general or from the bottom-up.
The ability to produce an infinite number of sentences using a relatively limited set rules.
Problem-solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life's everyday experiences.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
An individual's mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100.
A form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols.
mental age (MA)
An individual's level of mental development relative to that of others.
A condition of limited mental ability in which the individual has a low IQ, usually below 70, has difficulty adapting to everyday life, and has an onset of these characteristics in the so-called developmental period.
Being alert and mentally present for one's everyday activities.
A language's rules for word formation.
A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve with a majority of the scores falling in the middle of the possible range and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range.
Being receptive to the possibility of other ways of looking at things.
An approach to learning to read that emphasizes basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
A language's sound system.
An attempt to find an appropriate way of attaining a goal when the goal is not readily available.
The cognitive strategy of squarely facing one's troubles and trying to solve them.
Model emphasizing that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a "family resemblance."
The mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions.
The extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance.
The meaning of words and sentences in a particular language.
Developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms for the test.
Setting intermediate goals or defining intermediate problems in order to be in a better position to reach the final goal or solution.
A language's rules for the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences.
Manipulating information mentally, as when we form concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and reflect in a creative or critical manner.
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that there are three main types of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical.
An approach to learning to read that stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child's natural language learning; so reading materials should be whole and meaningful.
The class of sex hormones that predominate in males; they are produced by the testes in males and by the adrenal glands in both males and females.
An eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
A model emphasizing that the key to the adaptiveness of positive emotional states lies in their effects on our attention and our ability to build resources.
An eating disorder in which the individual consistently follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern.
Theory stating that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously.
The release of anger or aggressive energy by directly or vicariously engaging in anger or aggression; the catharsis hypothesis states that behaving angrily or watching others behave angrily reduces subsequent anger.
Sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed.
An aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need.
Feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal, conscious experience, and behavioral expression.
The main class of female sex hormones, produced principally by the ovaries.
Motivation that involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments.
facial feedback hypothesis
The idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them.
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's view that individuals' main needs are satisfied in the following sequence: physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization.
The body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state.
human sexual response pattern
Identified by Masters and Johnson, the four phases of physical reactions that occur in humans as a result of sexual stimulation. These phases are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
An innate (unlearned), biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species.
Motivation that is based on internal factors such as organismic needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), as well as curiosity, challenge, and effort.
Theory stating that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment.
The force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do.
A deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation.
A machine that monitors bodily changes thought to be influenced by emotional states; it is used by examiners to try to determine whether someone is lying.
The highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs; the motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being.
A theory of motivation that proposes that three basic, organismic needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) characterize intrinsic motivation.
The process by which an organism pursues important objectives, centrally involving getting feedback about how we are doing in our goal pursuits.
The weight maintained when no effort is made to gain or lose weight.
The direction of the person's erotic interests, whether heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual.
two-factor theory of emotion
Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is determined by two main factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labeling.
Principle stating that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than low or high arousal.