Chem 111 Chp 2

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Chem 111 Chp 2
2010-12-03 18:44:58

Chemistry 111 Chapter 2
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  1. actinide elements
    Elements 90–103.
  2. alcohols
    An organic compound whose molecules have the OH group attached to tetrahedral carbon.
  3. alkali metals
    The Group IA elements (except hydrogen)—lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium.
  4. alkaline earth metals
    The Group IIA elements—beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium.
  5. alkane
    A hydrocarbon whose molecules have only single bonds.
  6. anhydrous
    Without water
  7. anion
    A negatively charged ion.
  8. atomic mass
    The average mass (in u) of the atoms of the isotopes of a given element as they occur naturally.
  9. atomic number
    The number of protons in a nucleus.
  10. binary compounds
    A compound composed of two different elements.
  11. Brownian motion
    The random, erratic motions of colloidally dispersed particles in a fluid.
  12. cation
    A positively charged ion.
  13. chemical bonds
    The force of electrical attraction that holds atoms together in compounds.
  14. Dalton's atomic theory
    • Matter consists of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms. All atoms of one element are identical. The atoms of different elements have different masses. Atoms combine in definite ratios by atoms when they
    • form compounds.
  15. diatomic molecules
    A molecular substance made from two atoms.
  16. groups
    A vertical column of elements in the periodic table.
  17. halogens
    Group VIIA in the periodic table—fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.
  18. hydrates
    A compound that contains molecules of water in a definite ratio to other components.
  19. hydrides
    A binary compound of hydrogen. (2.6) (b) A compound containing the hydride ion (H-)
  20. hydrocarbons
    An organic compound whose molecules consist entirely of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
  21. inert gases
    Any of the noble gases—Group VIIIA of the periodic table. Any gas that has virtually no tendency to react.
  22. inner transition elements
    Members of the two long rows of elements below the main body of the periodic table—elements 58–71 and elements 90–103.
  23. inorganic compounds
    A compound made from any elements except those compounds of carbon classified as organic compounds.
  24. ionic compound
    A compound consisting of positive and negative ions.
  25. ions
    An electrically charged particle on the atomic or molecular scale of size.
  26. isotopes
    Atoms of the same element with different atomic masses. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.
  27. lanthanide elements
    Elements 58–71.
  28. law of conservation of mass
    No detectable gain or loss in mass occurs in chemical reactions. Mass is conserved.
  29. law of definite proportions
    In a given chemical compound, the elements are always combined in the same proportion by mass.
  30. law of multiple proportions
    Whenever two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other are in a ratio of small whole numbers.
  31. mass number
    The numerical sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom of a given isotope.
  32. molecular compounds
    A compound consisting of electrically neutral molecules
  33. nitrogen family
    Group VA in the periodic table—nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.
  34. periods
    A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
  35. rare earth metals
    The lanthanides.
  36. Methane
  37. Ethane
  38. Propane
  39. Butane
  40. Pentane
  41. Hexane
  42. H2SO4
    Sulfuric Acid
  43. H2SO3
    Sulfurous Acid
  44. HNO3
    Nitric Acid
  45. HNO2
    Nitrous Acid
  46. H3PO4
    Phosphoric Acid
  47. H2CO3
    Carbonic Acid
  48. HClO3
    Chloric Acid
  49. HClO2
    Chlorous Acid
  50. HClO4
    Perchloric Acid
  51. HClO
    Hypochlorous Acid
  52. HBrO
    Hypobromic Acid