An organic compound whose molecules have the OH group attached to tetrahedral carbon.
The Group IA elements (except hydrogen)—lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium.
alkaline earth metals
The Group IIA elements—beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium.
A hydrocarbon whose molecules have only single bonds.
A negatively charged ion.
The average mass (in u) of the atoms of the isotopes of a given element as they occur naturally.
The number of protons in a nucleus.
A compound composed of two different elements.
The random, erratic motions of colloidally dispersed particles in a fluid.
A positively charged ion.
The force of electrical attraction that holds atoms together in compounds.
Dalton's atomic theory
Matter consists of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms. All atoms of one element are identical. The atoms of different elements have different masses. Atoms combine in definite ratios by atoms when they
A molecular substance made from two atoms.
A vertical column of elements in the periodic table.
Group VIIA in the periodic table—fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.
A compound that contains molecules of water in a definite ratio to other components.
A binary compound of hydrogen. (2.6) (b) A compound containing the hydride ion (H-)
An organic compound whose molecules consist entirely of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Any of the noble gases—Group VIIIA of the periodic table. Any gas that has virtually no tendency to react.
inner transition elements
Members of the two long rows of elements below the main body of the periodic table—elements 58–71 and elements 90–103.
A compound made from any elements except those compounds of carbon classified as organic compounds.
A compound consisting of positive and negative ions.
An electrically charged particle on the atomic or molecular scale of size.
Atoms of the same element with different atomic masses. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.
law of conservation of mass
No detectable gain or loss in mass occurs in chemical reactions. Mass is conserved.
law of definite proportions
In a given chemical compound, the elements are always combined in the same proportion by mass.
law of multiple proportions
Whenever two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other are in a ratio of small whole numbers.
The numerical sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom of a given isotope.
A compound consisting of electrically neutral molecules
Group VA in the periodic table—nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.
A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.