Chapter 7

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Livinchillinlove
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53156
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Chapter 7
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2010-12-04 21:42:28
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medical terminology
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  1. Pulmon/o
    lung
  2. Sinus/o
    sinus (cavity)
  3. Spir/o
    ~pnea (suffix)
    breathing
  4. Thorac/o
    Pector/o
    Steth/o
    chest
  5. Tonsill/o
    tonsil
  6. Trache/o
    trachea (windpipe)
  7. Uvul/o
    uvula
  8. Nose
    structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract; also houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
  9. Sinuses
    air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
  10. Palate
    roof of the mouth; partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate
  11. Hard palate
    bony anterior (front) portion of the palate
  12. Soft palate
    muscular posterior (back) portion of the palate
  13. Pharynx
    throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and for air to the larynx
  14. Nasopharynx
    part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
  15. Oropharynx
    central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
  16. Larynxgopharynx
    lower part of the pharynx, just below the oropharyngeal opening into the larynx and esophagus
  17. Tonsils
    oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion; also called palatine tonsils
  18. Adenoid
    lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose; also called pharyngeal tonsil
  19. Uvula
    small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate; named for its grape-like shape.
  20. Larynx
    voice-box; passageway for air moving from the pharynx to the trachea; contains the vocal cords
  21. Glottis
    opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
  22. Epiglottis
    a lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
  23. Trachea
    windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina, where it splits into the right and left bronchi
  24. Bronchial tree
    branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli
  25. Right bronchus and left bronchus
    two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
  26. Bronchioles
    progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
  27. Alveoli
    thin-walled, microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
  28. Lungs
    two spongy organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage; responsible for respiration
  29. Lobes
    subdivisions of the lung, with two on the left and three on the right
  30. Pleura
    membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
  31. Pleural cavity
    potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
  32. Diaphragm
    muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and that moves upward and downward to aid in respiration
  33. Mediastinum
    partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (containing the right and left lungs) and that encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
  34. Mucous membranes
    thin sheets of tissue that line respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid (sticky) fluid
  35. Cilia
    hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, to move mucous cell secretions upward
  36. Parenchyma
    functional tissues of any organ, such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs, that perform respiration
  37. Eupnea
    normal breathing
  38. Bradypnea
    slow breathing
  39. Tachypnea
    fast breathing
  40. Hypopnewa
    shallow breathing
  41. Hyperpnea
    deep breathing
  42. Dyspnea
    difficulty breathing
  43. Apnea
    inability to breathe
  44. Orthopnea
    ability to breathe only in an upright position
  45. Cheyne- Stokes respiration
    pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and, sometimes, in rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
  46. Crackles
    Rales
    popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli; occurs in disorder such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
  47. Wheezes
    Rhonchi
    high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway; occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
  48. Stridor
    high-pitched, crowing sound that occurs with an obstruction in the upper airway (trachea or larynx)
  49. Caseous Necrosis
    degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance
  50. Cyanosis
    bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
  51. Dysphonia
    hoarseness
  52. Epistaxis
    nosebleed
  53. Expectoration
    Coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
  54. Sputum
    material expelled from the lungs by coughing
  55. Hemoptysis
    coughing up and spitting out blood that originates in the lungs
  56. Hypercapnia
    Hypercarbia
    excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
  57. Hypoventilation
    deficient movement of air into and out of the lungs, causing hypercapnia
  58. Hypoxemia
    deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
  59. Hypoxia
    deficient amount of oxygen in the tissue cells
  60. Obstructive lung disorder
    condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
  61. Restrictive lung disorder
    condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
  62. Pulmonary edema
    fluid filling the spaces around the alveoli and, eventually, flooding into the alveoli
  63. Pulmonary infiltrate
    density of an x-ray image representing the consolidation of matter within the air spaces of the lungs, usually resulting from an inflammatory process
  64. Rhinorrhea
    thin, watery discharge from the nose (runny nose)
  65. Asthma
    panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane; characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
  66. Atelectasis
    collapse of lung tissue (alveoli)
  67. Bronchiectasis
    abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
  68. Bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi
  69. Bronchogenic carcinoma
    lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi
  70. Bronchospasm
    constriction of bronchi caused by spasm
  71. Emphysema
    obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive chan
  72. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
  73. Cystic Fibrosis
    inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous (sticky) mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airway leads to the infection, inflammation, and damage of lung tissue
  74. Laryngitis
    inflammation of the larynx
  75. Laryngotracheobronchitis
    Croup
    inflammation of the upper airways with swelling; creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct " seal bark" cough
  76. Laryngospasm
    spasm of the laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction
  77. Nasal polyposis
    prescence of numerous polyps in the nose (a polyp is a tumor on a stalk)
  78. Pharyngitis
    inflammation of the pharynx
  79. Pleural effusion
    accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
  80. Empyema
    accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
  81. Hemothorax
    blood in the pleural cavity
  82. Pleuritis
    Pleurisy
    inflammation of the pleura
  83. Pneumoconiosis
    chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts, such as coal, asbestos, or silicone
  84. Pneumonia
    inflamation in the lung resulting from infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites or from aspiration of chemcicals
  85. Pneumocystis pneumonia
    pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism, a common opportunistic infection in those who are positive for the human immunodeficiency virus
  86. Pneumothorax
    air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
  87. Pneumohemothorax
    air and blood in the pleural cavity
  88. Pneumonitis
    inflammation of the lung, often caused by hypersensitvity to chemicals or dusts
  89. Pulmonary embolism
    occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
  90. Pulmonary tuberculosis
    disease caused by the prescence of Myocobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs; characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions (caseous necrosis)
  91. Sinusitis
    inflammation of the sinuses
  92. Sleep apnea
    periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often resulting in snoring
  93. Tonsillitis
    acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
  94. Upper respiratory infection
    infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
  95. Arterial blood gas
    analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of the lung function in the exchange of gases
  96. pH
    abbreviation for the potential of hydrogen; measurement of blood acidity or alkalinity
  97. PaO2
    abbreviation for partial pressure of oxygen; measurement of the amount of oxygen in the blood
  98. PaCO2
    abbreviation for partial pressure of carbon dioxide; measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
  99. Endoscopy
    examination inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes
  100. Bronchoscopy
    use of flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine the airways
  101. Nasopharyngoscopy
    use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx (throat) to diagnose structural abnormalities, such as obstructions, growths, and cancers
  102. Examination methods
    techniques used during physical examination to objectively evaluate the respiratory system
  103. Auscultation
    to listen; a physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
  104. Percussion
    a physical examination method of tapping hte body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity, such as the chest
  105. Lung biopsy (Bx)
    removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathologic examination
  106. Lung scan
    a two-part nuclear (radionuclide) scan of the lungs to detect abnormalities of ventilation (respiration) or perfusion (blood flow) made 1) after radioactive material is injected in the patient's blood, and 2) as the patient breathes radioactive material into the airways; comparision of the two scans indicates whether an abnormality exists in the airways or the pulmonary circulation
  107. Magnetic resonance imaging
    nonionizing image of the lung to visualize lung lesions
  108. Polysomnography
    recoding of various aspects of sleep for diagnosis of sleep disorders
  109. Pulmonary function testing
    direct and indirect measurements of lung volumes and capacities
  110. Spirometry
    direct measurement of lung volume and capacity
  111. Tidal volume
    amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration
  112. Vital capacity
    amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration
  113. Peak flow
    Peak expiratory flow rate
    measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration
  114. Pulse oximetry
    noninvasive method of estimating the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood using an oximeter with a specialized probe attached to the skin at a site of arterial pulsation, commonly the finger; used to monitor hypoxemia
  115. Radiology
    x-ray imaging
  116. Chest x-ray
    x-ray imaging of the chest to visualize the lungs; directional terms indentify the path of the x-ray beam to produce the radiograph: PA, AP, lateral
  117. Computed Tomography
    CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung; CT of the head is used to visualize the structures of the nose and sinuses
  118. Pulmonary angiography
    x-ray imaging of the blood vessels of the lungs after the injection of contrast material
  119. Adenoidectomy
    excision of the adenoids
  120. Lobectomy
    removal of a lobe of a lung
  121. Nasal polypectomy
    removal of a nasal polyp
  122. Pneumonectomy
    removal of an entire lung
  123. Thoracentesis
    puncture for aspiration of the chest
  124. Thoracoplasty
    repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
  125. Thoracoscopy
    endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thorascope
  126. Thoracostomy
    creation of an opening in the chest, usually to insert a tube
  127. Thoracotomy
    incision into the chest
  128. Tonsillectomy
    excision of the palatine tonsils
  129. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A)
    excision of the tonsils and adenoids
  130. Tracheostomy
    creation of an opening in the trachea, usually to insert a tube
  131. Tracheotomy
    incision into the trachea
  132. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    method of artificial respiration and chest compressions to move oxygenated blood to vital blood organs when breathing and the heart have stopped
  133. Continous positive airway pressure therapy
    use of a device with a mask that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages; commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea
  134. Endotracheal intubation
    passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs
  135. Incentive spirometry
    a common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and hold and inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications
  136. Mechanical ventilation
    mechanical breathing using a ventilator
  137. Antibiotic
    a drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
  138. Anticoagulant
    a drug that dissolves, or prevents the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels
  139. Antihistamine
    a drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
  140. Histamine
    a compound in the body that is released by injured cells during allergic reactions, inflammation, and so on , causing constriciton of bronchial smooth muscle and dilation of blood vessels
  141. Bronchodilator
    a drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
  142. Expectorant
    a drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing

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