A salt of a partially neutralized polyprotic acid, for example, NaHSO4 or NaHCO3.
A dye with one color in acid and another color in base.
The reaction of an acid with a base.
An oxide that reacts with water to make the solution acidic.
Acid: Arrhenius theory:
A substance that produces hydronium ions (hydrogen ions) in water.
Acid: Brønsted theory:
A proton donor
Aicd: Lewis theory:
An electron-pair acceptor.
Base: Arrhenius theory:
A substance that releases OH- ions in water.
Base: Brønsted theory:
Base: Lewis theory:
An electron-pair acceptor.
An oxide that can neutralize acid or that reacts with water to give OH-
An acid with the general formula HnX, where X is a nonmetal.
A long tube of glass usually marked in mL and 0.1 mL units and equipped with a stopcock for the controlled addition of a liquid to a receiving flask.
Dynamic equilibrium in a chemical system.
A solution that has a large ratio of the amounts of solute to solvent.
A solution in which the ratio of the quantities of solute to solvent is small.
An acid that can furnish two H+ per molecule
The separation of preexisting ions when an ionic compound dissolves or melts.
Double Replacement Reaction
(Metathesis Reaction) A reaction of two salts in which cations and anions exchange partners
A condition in which two opposing processes are occurring at equal rates.
A compound that conducts electricity either in solution or in the molten state.
The moment in a titration when the indicator changes color and the titration is ended.
In a chemical equation, the reaction as read from left to right.
A compound that contains molecules of water in a definite ratio to other components.
A chemical equation in which soluble strong electrolytes are written in dissociated or ionized form.
A chemical reaction in which ions are involved.
A reaction of chemical particles that produces ions
Molar Concentration (M)
The number of moles of solute per liter of solution. The molarity of a solution.
A chemical equation that gives the full formulas of all of the reactants and products and that is used to plan an actual experiment
An acid that can furnish one H+ per molecule.
Net Ionic Equation
An ionic equation from which spectator ions have been omitted. It is balanced when both atoms and electrical charge balance.
A compound that in its molten state or in solution cannot conduct electricity.
An acid that contains oxygen besides hydrogen and another element
An acid that can furnish more than one H+ per molecule.
Position of Equilibrium
The relative amounts of the substances on both sides of the double arrows in the equation for an equilibrium.
A solid that separates from a solution usually as the result of a chemical reaction.
A reaction in which a precipitate forms.
The use of experimental procedures to determine what elements are present in a substance.
The use of experimental procedures to determine the percentage composition of a compound or the percentage of a component of a mixture.
In a chemical equation, the reaction as read from right to left.
An ionic compound in which the anion is not OH- or O2- and the cation is not H+
A solution that holds as much solute as it can at a given temperature. A solution in which there is an equilibrium between the dissolved and the undissolved states of the solute.
The ratio of the quantity of solute to the quantity of solvent in a saturated solution and that is usually expressed in units of (g solute)/(100 g solvent) at a specified temperature.
Something dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
A homogeneous mixture in which all particles are of the size of atoms, small molecules, or small ions.
A medium, usually a liquid, into which something (a solute) is dissolved to make a solution.
An ion whose formula appears in an ionic equation identically on both sides of the arrow, that does not participate in the reaction, and that is excluded from the net ionic equation.
Any solution whose concentration is accurately known
An acid that is essentially 100% ionized in water. A good proton donor. An acid with a large value of Ka.
Any powerful proton acceptor. A base with a large value of Kb. A metal hydroxide that dissociates essentially 100% in water.
Any substance that ionizes or dissociates in water to essentially 100%.
A solution that contains more solute than it would hold if the solution were saturated. Supersaturated solutions are unstable and tend to produce precipitates.
The solution added from a buret during a titration.
An analytical procedure in which a solution of unknown concentration is combined slowly and carefully with a standard solution until a color change of some indicator or some other signal shows that equivalent quantities have reacted. Either solution can be the titrant in a buret with the other solution being in a receiving flask.
Any solution with a concentration less than that of a saturated solution of the same solute and solvent.
An acid with a low percentage ionization in solution; a poor proton donor; an acid with a low value of Ka.
A base with a low percentage ionization in solution; a poor proton acceptor; a base with a low value of Kb.
A substance that has a low percentage ionization or dissociation in solution.