Chem 111 Chp 4

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maritacov
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53158
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Chem 111 Chp 4
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2010-12-03 19:15:54
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Chemistry 111 Chapter 4
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  1. Acid Salt
    A salt of a partially neutralized polyprotic acid, for example, NaHSO4 or NaHCO3.
  2. Acid—Base Indicator
    A dye with one color in acid and another color in base.
  3. Acid—Base Neutralization
    The reaction of an acid with a base.
  4. Acidic Anhydride
    An oxide that reacts with water to make the solution acidic.
  5. Acid: Arrhenius theory:
    A substance that produces hydronium ions (hydrogen ions) in water.
  6. Acid: Brønsted theory:
    A proton donor
  7. Aicd: Lewis theory:
    An electron-pair acceptor.
  8. Base: Arrhenius theory:
    A substance that releases OH- ions in water.
  9. Base: Brønsted theory:
    A proton-acceptor.
  10. Base: Lewis theory:
    An electron-pair acceptor.
  11. Basic Anhydride
    An oxide that can neutralize acid or that reacts with water to give OH-
  12. Binary Acid
    An acid with the general formula HnX, where X is a nonmetal.
  13. Buret
    A long tube of glass usually marked in mL and 0.1 mL units and equipped with a stopcock for the controlled addition of a liquid to a receiving flask.
  14. Chemical Equilibrium
    Dynamic equilibrium in a chemical system.
  15. Concentrated Solution
    A solution that has a large ratio of the amounts of solute to solvent.
  16. Dilute Solution
    A solution in which the ratio of the quantities of solute to solvent is small.
  17. Diprotic Acid
    An acid that can furnish two H+ per molecule
  18. Dissociation
    The separation of preexisting ions when an ionic compound dissolves or melts.
  19. Double Replacement Reaction
    (Metathesis Reaction) A reaction of two salts in which cations and anions exchange partners
  20. Dynamic Equilibrium
    A condition in which two opposing processes are occurring at equal rates.
  21. Electrolyte
    A compound that conducts electricity either in solution or in the molten state.
  22. End Point
    The moment in a titration when the indicator changes color and the titration is ended.
  23. Forward Reaction
    In a chemical equation, the reaction as read from left to right.
  24. Hydrate
    A compound that contains molecules of water in a definite ratio to other components.
  25. Ionic Equation
    A chemical equation in which soluble strong electrolytes are written in dissociated or ionized form.
  26. Ionic Reaction
    A chemical reaction in which ions are involved.
  27. Ionization Reaction
    A reaction of chemical particles that produces ions
  28. Molar Concentration (M)
    The number of moles of solute per liter of solution. The molarity of a solution.
  29. Molecular Equation
    A chemical equation that gives the full formulas of all of the reactants and products and that is used to plan an actual experiment
  30. Monoprotic Acid
    An acid that can furnish one H+ per molecule.
  31. Net Ionic Equation
    An ionic equation from which spectator ions have been omitted. It is balanced when both atoms and electrical charge balance.
  32. Nonelectrolyte
    A compound that in its molten state or in solution cannot conduct electricity.
  33. Oxoacid
    An acid that contains oxygen besides hydrogen and another element
  34. Polyprotic Acid
    An acid that can furnish more than one H+ per molecule.
  35. Position of Equilibrium
    The relative amounts of the substances on both sides of the double arrows in the equation for an equilibrium.
  36. Precipitate
    A solid that separates from a solution usually as the result of a chemical reaction.
  37. Precipitation Reaction
    A reaction in which a precipitate forms.
  38. Qualitative Analysis
    The use of experimental procedures to determine what elements are present in a substance.
  39. Quantitative Analysis
    The use of experimental procedures to determine the percentage composition of a compound or the percentage of a component of a mixture.
  40. Reverse Reaction
    In a chemical equation, the reaction as read from right to left.
  41. Salt
    An ionic compound in which the anion is not OH- or O2- and the cation is not H+
  42. Saturated Solution
    A solution that holds as much solute as it can at a given temperature. A solution in which there is an equilibrium between the dissolved and the undissolved states of the solute.
  43. Solubility
    The ratio of the quantity of solute to the quantity of solvent in a saturated solution and that is usually expressed in units of (g solute)/(100 g solvent) at a specified temperature.
  44. Solute
    Something dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
  45. Solution
    A homogeneous mixture in which all particles are of the size of atoms, small molecules, or small ions.
  46. Solvent
    A medium, usually a liquid, into which something (a solute) is dissolved to make a solution.
  47. Spectator Ion
    An ion whose formula appears in an ionic equation identically on both sides of the arrow, that does not participate in the reaction, and that is excluded from the net ionic equation.
  48. Standard Solution
    Any solution whose concentration is accurately known
  49. Strong Acid
    An acid that is essentially 100% ionized in water. A good proton donor. An acid with a large value of Ka.
  50. Strong Base
    Any powerful proton acceptor. A base with a large value of Kb. A metal hydroxide that dissociates essentially 100% in water.
  51. Strong Electrolyte
    Any substance that ionizes or dissociates in water to essentially 100%.
  52. Supersaturated Solution
    A solution that contains more solute than it would hold if the solution were saturated. Supersaturated solutions are unstable and tend to produce precipitates.
  53. Titrant
    The solution added from a buret during a titration.
  54. Titration
    An analytical procedure in which a solution of unknown concentration is combined slowly and carefully with a standard solution until a color change of some indicator or some other signal shows that equivalent quantities have reacted. Either solution can be the titrant in a buret with the other solution being in a receiving flask.
  55. Unsaturated Solution
    Any solution with a concentration less than that of a saturated solution of the same solute and solvent.
  56. Weak Acid
    An acid with a low percentage ionization in solution; a poor proton donor; an acid with a low value of Ka.
  57. Weak Base
    A base with a low percentage ionization in solution; a poor proton acceptor; a base with a low value of Kb.
  58. Weak Electrolyte
    A substance that has a low percentage ionization or dissociation in solution.

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