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2010-12-03 20:05:27
Evolution Chapter

Evo Ch.1
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  1. What is Science?
    a way of understanding the natural world
  2. What 3 basic questions does Science attemp to answer?
    • -what is there?
    • -how does it work?
    • -how did it come to be this way?
  3. What is Science in philosophy?
    Methodological Naturalism
  4. What is Science a requirement of?
    requirement of the Western Legal System
  5. Describe Science as a process
    ideas developed by inference, testing hypotheses with observations, peer review and replication
  6. What kind of explanation is considered the most likely in Science?
    the simplest explanation (Parsimony?)
  7. What are Theories?
    They allow scientists to make predictions. They are based on evidence that tries to make sense of some aspect of nature that is tested in many ways
  8. What are scientific theories subject to?
    review and modication
  9. What can science answer questions about?
    natural world
  10. What can science NOT answer questions about?
    morality, beauty, etc.
  11. Platonic Ideal
    states that our reality is only a refelection of a higher truth or ideal -variation in the natural world is a sign of imperfection relative to this ideal
  12. Scala Naturae
    Great Chain of Being
  13. What is the Great Chain of Being?
    states that all species arrayed along a single axis and they are unchanging, and increase in order,complexity,perfection. Each species was created independently as a part of God's perfect, ordered creation.
  14. Carolus Linneaus
    father of modern taxonomy
  15. Taxonomy order
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species epithet
  16. What is the species name composed of?
    Genus+epithet = binomial nomenclature
  17. Why is it wrong to call the species epithet the "species name"?
    b/c species name is made up of Genus + Species epithet (ie. Homo(Genus) + sapiens(Species epithet))
  18. Uniformitarianism
    idea originally by Ibn Sina (persian doctor/philosopher) - states that the present is the key to the past and suggests that Earth is older than 6000 years
  19. Archbishop Ussher
    using his knowledge of the Bible, calculated the origin of the universe (Creation) to have occurred at the nightfull preceding 10/23 4004BC (Ussher Chronology)
  20. Thomas Malthus
    wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (states that population usually don't grow at an exponential rate and that all species produce more offspring than can survive on given resources)
  21. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
    proposed "inheritance of acquired characters" using giraffes' necks as example - aka that species evolved, before Darwin
  22. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
    Theory of Natural Selection
  23. The Origin of Species
    written by Darwin and includes 5 theories on evolution
  24. 5 theories in The Orign of Species
    • 1. Evolution
    • 2. Common Descent
    • 3. Gradualism
    • 4. Species Diversification
    • 5. Natural Selection
  25. Evolution
    (The Origin of Species) species evolve (not a unique idea to Darwin)
  26. Common Descent
    (The Origin of Species) shared common ancestors and that greater similarity reflects more recent ancestry
  27. Gradulalism
    (The Origin of Species) evolutionary change occurs through small incremental steps
  28. Species Diversification
    (The Origin of Species) number of species multiplies as they diverge from common ancestors
  29. Natural Selection
    (The Origin of Species) differential survival and reproduction of some individuals have over others in a population due to phenotypic differences and if the differences are heritable, they'll show up in the next generation
  30. HIV Case Study
    showed that Genetic Variation in the HIV population results from Mutation and that Evolution can occur in any population where there is heritable variation in reproductive success (**study the questions and figures about the HIV case study!!**)