Chapter 14&15

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Chapter 14&15
2010-12-03 20:51:58
Anatomy Physiology Peripheral nervous System Sense Organs

Peripheral Nervous System and Sense Organs
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  1. describes the appearance of the lower end of the spinal cord and its spinal nerve as a horse’s tail
    Cauda equine
  2. swelling in the dorsal root of each spinal nerve
    Dorsal Root Ganglion
  3. supplies somatic motor and sensory fibers to smaller nerves that innervate the muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the head, neck and trunk
    Dorsal Ramus
  4. splitting and rejoining of autonomic fibers
    Sympathetic Rami
  5. are complex networks formed by the ventral rami of most spinal nerves (not T2 through T12) subdividing and then joining together to form individual nerves
  6. region of skin surface area supplied by afferent (sensory) fibers of a given spinal nerve
  7. skeletal muscle or muscles supplied by efferent (motor) fibers of a given spinal nerve
  8. axons of sensory and motor neurons
    Mixed Cranial Nerve
  9. mainly axons of motor neurons only
    Sensory Cranial Nerve
  10. mainly axons of motor neurons and a small number of sensory fibers (proprioceptors)
    Motor Cranial Nerve
  11. either contraction of smooth or cardiac muscle or secretion by glands
    Autonomic (visceral) Reflex
  12. contraction of skeletal muscles
    Somatic Reflex
  13. center of reflex arc is in the spinal cord
    Spinal Reflex
  14. center of reflex are is in the brain
    Cranial Reflex
  15. action that results from a nerve impulse passing over a reflex are; predictable response to a stimulus
  16. includes all voluntary motor pathways outside the central nervous system
    Somatic Nervous System
  17. reflexes deviate from normal in certain diseases, and reflex testing is a valuable diagnostic aid
    Somatic Flexes of Clinical Importance
  18. extension of the lower leg in response to tapping the patellar tendon; tendon and muscles are stretched, stimulating muscle spindles and initiating conduction over a two-neuron reflex arc
    Knee Jerk Reflex (aka Patellar Reflex)
  19. center of reflex are located in spinal cord gray matter
    Spinal Cord Reflex
  20. mediating impulses enter and leave at the same cord segment
    Segmental Reflex
  21. mediating impulses come from and go to the same side of the body
    Ipsilateral Reflex
  22. result of type of stimulation used to evoke reflex
    Stretch or Myotatic Reflex
  23. produced by extensors of the lower leg
    Extensor Reflex
  24. tapping tendon is stimulus that elicits reflex
    Tendon Reflex
  25. result of deep location of receptors stimulated to produce reflex
    Deep Reflex
  26. extension of the foot in response to tapping the Achilles tendon; tendon reflex and deep reflex mediated by two-neuron spinal arcs; centers lie in first and second sacral segments of the cord
    Ankle Jerk Reflex (aka Achilles Reflex)
  27. flexion of all toes and a slight turning in and flexion of the anterior part of the foot in response to stimulation of the outer edge of the sole
    Plantar Reflex
  28. Extension of great toe, with or without fanning of other toes, in response to stimulation of outer margin of sole of foot; present in normal infants until approximately 1 ½ yrs of age and then becomes suppressed when corticospinal fibers become fully myelinated
    Babinski Sign
  29. winking in response to the cornea being touched; mediated by reflex arcs with sensory fibers in the ophthalmic branch of the 5th cranial nerve, center in the pons, and motor fibers in the 7th cranial nerve
    Corneal Reflex
  30. drawing of the abdominal wall in response to stroking the side of the abdomen; superficial reflex; mediated by arcs with sensory and motor fibers in T9 – T12 and centers in these segments of the cord
    Abdominal Reflex
  31. efferent neuron with which a preganglionic neuron synapses within autonomic ganglion
  32. conducts impulses from the central nervous system to an autonomic ganglion
    Preganglionic Neuron
  33. short branch by which some postganglionic axons return to a spinal nerve
    Gray Ramus
  34. cell bodies are located in nuclei in the brainstem or lateral gray columns of the sacral cord; extend a considerable distance before synapsing with postganglionic neurons
    Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neurons
  35. dendrites and cell bodies are located in parasympadendrites and cell bodies are located in parasympathetic ganglia which are embedded in or near autonomic effector
    Parasympathetic Postganglionic Neurons
  36. release norepinephrine; axons of postganglionic sympathetic neurons
    Adrenegic fibers
  37. release acetylcholine; axons of preganglionic sympathetic neurons and of preganglionic
    Cholinergic fibers
  38. enzyme that breaks up neurotransmitter molecules taken back up by the synaptic knobs
    Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
  39. enzyme that breaks down the remaining neurotransmitter
    Catechol-O-methyl Transferase (COMT)
  40. slows heartbeat and acts to promote digestion and elimination
  41. responds to stimuli by converting them to nerve impulses
    general response of receptor
  42. a graded response and develops when adequate stimuluscacts on receptor; when threshold is reached, an action potential is triggered
    Receptor Potential
  43. a functional characteristic of receptors; receptors potential decreases over time in response to a continuous stimulus, which leads to a decreased rate of impulse conduction and a decreased intensity of sensation
  44. small, with less tightly coiled dendritic endings within their capsule; involved in touch, low-frequency vibrations
    Bulboid Corpuscles (Krause end bulbs)
  45. relatively large and superficial in placement; mediates touch and low frequency vibration; large numbers in hariless skin areas, such as niples, fingertips, and lips
    Tactile Corpucles (Meissner Corpuscle)
  46. six types; all have connective tissue capsules and are mechanorecptors;
    Encapsulated Nerve Endings
  47. activated when "deformed" to generate receptor potential
  48. activated by amount or changing concentration of certain chemicals, e.g. taste and smell; finite system
  49. activated by changes in temperature
  50. activated by intense stimuli that may damage tissue; sensation produced in pain; deep in finger or cutenous
  51. found only in the eye; respond to light stimuli if the intensity is great enough to generate a receptor potential
  52. concentrated in the hypothalamus; activated by changes in concentration of electrolytes (osmolarity) in extracellular fluids
  53. have a flattened capsule and are deeply located in the dermis; mediate crude and persistent touch; may be secondary temperature receptors for heat (85 - 120)F
    Bulbous (Ruffini) Corpuscles
  54. large mechanoreceptors that respond quickly to senstaion of deep pressure, high-frequency vibration, and stretch; found in deep dermis and in joint capsules; they adapt quickly, and sensations they evoke seldom last for long periods
    Lamellar or Pacini Corpuscles
  55. two types; operate to provide body with information concerning muscle length and strength of muscle contraction
    Stretch Receptors
  56. composed of 5 to 10 intrafusal fibers lying between and parallel to regular (extrafusal) muscle fibers
    Muscle Spindle
  57. located at juction between muscle tissue and tendon; made up of encapsulated neuron endings associated with collagen bundles
    Golgi Tendon Organs
  58. located on olfactory sensory neurons that touch the olfactory epithelium lining the upper surface of the nasal cavity
    Olfactory cells
  59. chemoreceptors; gas molecules or chemicals dissolved in the mucus covering the nasal epithelium stimulate the olfactory cells
    Olfactory cells
  60. located in most superior portion of the nasal vavity
    Olfactory Epithelium
  61. extremely sensitive and easily fatiged
    Olfactory receptors
  62. when the level of odor-producing chemicals reaches a threshold level
    Olfactory pathway
  63. sense organs that respond to gustatory or taste stimuli; associated with papillae
    Taste Bud
  64. sensory cells in taste buds
    Gustatory Cells
  65. the visible portion of the ear
    Auricle or Pinna
  66. tube leading from the auricle into the temporal bone and ending at the tympanic membrane
    External Acoustic Meatus
  67. Tiny, epithelium-lined cavity hollowed out of the temporal bone
    Middle Ear
  68. attached to the inner surface of the tympanic membrane
    Malleus (hammer)
  69. attached to the malleus and stapes
    Incus (anvil)
  70. attached to the incus
    Stapes (stirrup)
  71. opening into inner ear; stapes fits here
    Oval Window
  72. opening into inner ear; covered by a membrane
    Round Window
  73. made up of the vesibule, cochlea, and semicircular canals
    Bony Labyrinth
  74. made up of utricle and saccule inside the vestibule, cochlear duct inside the cochlea, and membranous semicircular ducts inside the bony semicircular canals
    Membranous Labyrinth
  75. organs involved with balance
    Vestibule and Semicircular canal
  76. involved with hearing; bony labyrinth;
  77. clear, potassium-rich fluid filling the membranous labyrinth
  78. similar to cererospinal fluid, surrounds the membranous labyrinth, filling the space between the membranous tunnel and its contents and the bony walls that surrounds it
  79. rests on the basilar membrane; consists of supporting cells and hair cells; also called spiral organs
    Organ of Corti
  80. floor of the cochlear duct
    Basilar (spiral) Membrane
  81. lies inside the cochlea; only part of the internal ear concerned with hearing; shaped like triangular tube
    Cochlear Duct
  82. cone-shaped core of bone that houses the spiral ganglion, which consists of cell bodies of the first sensory neuronsin the auditory relay
  83. the roof of the cochlear duct
    Vesibular membrane
  84. created by vibration
  85. the central section of the bony labrinth; the utricle and saccule are the membranous structures within the what?
  86. found in each temporal bone
    Three semicircular canals
  87. ability to sense the position of the head relative to gravity or to sense acceleration or deceleration
    Static Equilibrium
  88. muscular response to restore the body and its parts to their normal position when they they have been displaced; caused by stimuli of a macula and impulses from proprioceptors and from the eyes
    Righting Reflexes