Chapter 10

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Author:
Kaha
ID:
53199
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Chapter 10
Updated:
2010-12-04 09:31:46
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Emotions
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Description:
Emotions and Motivation
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  1. The essential feature of all emotion is:
    The experience.
  2. Emotion
    A positive or negative experience thats associated with a particular patetrn of physiological activity.
  3. James-Lange Theory
    First you see the bear, then you're heart starts pounding then you experience fear, which is simply your experience of your body's activity.
  4. Cannon-Bard Theory
    A stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain.
  5. Two-Factor Theory
    Emotions are inferences about the causes of undifferentiated physiological arousal.
  6. An emotional map reveals that emotional experience differ on two dimensions:
    1.Valence (how +ve or -ve the experience is)

    2. Arousal (how active or passive the experience is)
  7. Appraisal
    An evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus that is performed by the amygdala.
  8. Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
    Animals with thsi become hypersexual and will attempt to mate with members of different species and even inanimate objects.
  9. If visual info cannot reach the _________ then its emotional significance cannot be assessed.
    amygdala
  10. The amygdala's job is to...
    make a very rapid appraisal of a stimulus, and thus it doesnt require much info.
  11. When people are asked to inhibit emotions, they show increased _______ activity and decrease ________ activity.
    cortical; limbic
  12. Emotion Regulation
    The use of cognitice and behavioural strategies to influeance one's emotional experience.
  13. Reappraisal
    Strategy involving changining ones emotional experiences by changing the meaning of the emotiona-eliciting stimulus.
  14. Emotional Expression
    Any observable sign of an emotional state.
  15. Universality Hypothesis
    The hypothesis that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone. Charles Darwin.

    Evidence:

    • 1.people accurately judge emotional expressions of other cultures.
    • 2. People who have never seen a human face make the same facial expressions.
  16. Underneath every face lie ___# of muscles that are capable of creating more than _____ unique faces (due to emotional experience)
    43;10000
  17. Words are _______. Face expressions are _____.
    Symbols; Signs.
  18. Facial feedback
    Suggests that emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify.
  19. Display Rules (norm for the control of emotional expressions):
    • Intensification - Exaggerating
    • Deintensification - Muting. (ex. not showing disappointment when you lose)
    • Masking - expressing one emotion while feeling another.
    • Neutralizing - feeling but not displaying. (ex. judges)
  20. 4 sets of features can allow a careful observer to tell whther our emotional expression is sincere:
    • 1. Morphology: Certain facial muscles tend to resist conscious control. (ex. difference between fake and real smile: eye crinkles)
    • 2. Symmetry: Sincere is more symmetrical than fake.
    • 3. Duration: Sincere last 0.5-5 seconds & anything shorter/longer isnt sincere.
    • 4. Temporal Patterning: Sincere appear and disappear smoothly, insincere doesnt - very abrupt.
  21. Correlation between a person's ability to detect lies and the person's confidence in that ability is essentially _______.
    Zero
  22. Polygraph =
    Lie detector
  23. Motivation
    Purpose for or cause of an action
  24. 2 ways emotions move us:
    • 1. emotions provide us with information about the world.
    • 2. emotions are the objectives towards which we strive.
  25. Capgras Syndrome
    believe member of family is an imposter. Occurs due to damaged connection between temporal lobe and limbic system.
  26. Hedonic Principle
    The idea that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain.
  27. Behaviourism rejected instinct on two grounds:
    They believed that...

    1. behaviour should be explained by the external stimuli that evoke it.

    2. all complex behaviour was learned - cant be inherited!
  28. Homeostasis
    Tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state.
  29. Drive
    Internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality.
  30. Maslow's Hierarchy (top to bottom)
    • Need for self-actualization
    • Esteem needs
    • Belongingness and love needs
    • Safety and security
    • Physiological needs
  31. If your body needs energy, it sends an _________ signal to your brain to switch hunger on. And if it has enough energy, it sends an _________ signal to your brain to switch hunger off.
    orexigenic; anorexigenic
  32. __________ hypothalamus recieves the signals that turn hunger on. And the _____ hypothalamus recieves the ones that turn hunger off.
    Lateral; ventromedical
  33. DHEA
    hormone involved in the initial onset of sexual desire.
  34. Human sexual response cycle:
    1. During the excitement phase, muscle tension and blood flow increase in and around the sexual organ

    2. During the plateau phase, heart rate and muscle tension increase further.

    3. During the orgasm phase, breathing becomes extremely rapid and the pelvic muscles begin a series of rhythim contractions.

    5. During the resolution phase, muscles relax, blood pressure drops, and body returns to its resting state. Most men&women experience a refractory period (further stimulation doesnt produce excitement)
  35. Types of Motivation (7):
    • 1. Extrinsic - not rewarding but lead to reward.
    • 2. Intrinsic - rewarding.
    • 3. Conscious - of which one is aware.
    • 4. Unconscious - of which one is unaware.
    • 5. Approach - to experience +ve outcomes
    • 6. Avoidance - not to experience -ve outcomes. More powerful than approach.
    • 7. Need for achievement - solve worthwile problems.

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