Chapters 3/13 Review

Card Set Information

Chapters 3/13 Review
2010-01-26 22:16:08
Science Review(SH)

changes of state, fluid principles, gas laws, states of matter, etc.
Show Answers:

  1. What is the Kinetic Theory?
    all matter is made of atoms that are always in motion
  2. What are the 4 states of matter?
    • -solid
    • -liquid
    • -gas
    • -plasma
  3. Why does a solid have a definate shape and volume?
    • Definate shape- b/c the atoms are low energy and in fixed, rigid positions
    • Definate volume- b/c the atoms are already very close together
  4. ____ solids have a crystal structure or a lattice structure that holds the atoms in place

    -atoms attach in lattice in repeating, geometric patterns
    "true" solids
  5. ______ solids appear to be solid, but do not have a crystal/lattice structure

    -they are actually very thick liquids...
    "Amorphus solids"
  6. Why do liquids have an indefinate shape, but a definate volume?
    Indefinate shape- b/c liquid atoms are higher energy and are NOT in fixed, rigid positions, making them pourable as the atoms move past eachother

    Definate volume- b/c the atoms are still very close together, so they cannot be compressed
  7. Liquids may be described by their _______
  8. Why do gases have an indefinate shape and volume?
    Indefinate shape- b/c the atoms are extremely active

    • Indefinate volume- b/c the atoms are widely spread
    • -gases can be compressed
  9. Why does plasma conduct electricity and emit light?
    • -the electrons within the atoms are highly energized, causing them to jump out of "orbit," then back in, releasing a photon of light
    • -these free flowing electrons conduct electricity
  10. -What is the equation for Pressure?
    -What is Pressure measured in?
    • - P=F/A
    • - Pascals or KiloPascals
  11. Atmospheric pressure equals how many pascals?
    -101,000 Pa
  12. What law is this...
    if you increase the temperature of a gas, the volume will increase and vice-versa
    Charles Law
  13. Explain Charles Law using kinetic theory.
    as the temperature of the gas increases, the atoms move faster, pushing their neighbors further away, thus increasing the volume of the gas
  14. What law is this...
    If you decrease the volume of a gas, the pressure of the gas will increase and vice-versa
    Boyles Law
  15. Explain Bloyles law using kinetic theory.
    if the volume of gas is increased, the atoms have a further distance to travel to hit the sides of the container, thus hitting less often, causing a decrease in the pressure inside the container...vice-versa
  16. Fill in the Blanks. (Endothermic)

    A solid _____ into a liquid, a liquid can _______ or _______ into a gas, and a solid ________ into a gas.
    • -melts
    • -evaporate
    • -vaporate
    • -sublimates
  17. Fill in the blanks. (Exothermic)

    A gas _______ into a liquid, a liquid ______ into a solid, and a gas _______ into a solid.
    • -condensates
    • -freezes
    • -deposition or deposes
  18. -a specific amount of energy absorbed by a substance as it changes from a soid to a liquid and released as it changes from a liquid to a solid
    heat fusion
  19. -a specific amount of energy absorbed by a substance as it changes from a liquid to a gas and released as it changes from a gas back to a liquid
    heat of vaporization
  20. How does pressure affect changes of state?
    • -if you increase pressure on a liquid as it is heated, you can increase the boiling point above normal
    • - if you decrease pressure on a liquid, it will boil at a lower temperature

    -adding impurites can affect the temperature in which materials change state (ex: sand melts ice on roads)
  21. What principle is this...
    -If the velocity of a fluid is high, then the pressure of that fluid is high, conversely, if the velocity of a fluid is low, the pressure in that fluid is high
    Bernouli's principle
  22. The Ventri Effect states...
    -when a fluid passes through a narrow channel, the velocity will increase, causing low pressure(ex: rapids)
  23. What principle is this...
    -this principle explains why we feel so weightless when submerged ina fluid
    Archimedes principle
  24. The upward force felt by an object due to the weight of fluid displaced by that object
    buoyant force
  25. What principle is this...
    -pressure is transmitted unchanged and evenly throughout an enclosed fluid
    pascals principle