Med Terms Chap 10 Cardiovascular

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Med Terms Chap 10 Cardiovascular
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2010-12-04 14:42:32
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Med Terms Chap 10 Cardiovascular
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  1. bradycardia
    slow heart beat, ventricular contractions less tan 60bpm
  2. bruit
    abnormal sound heard when an artery us ausulated, usually a blowing or swishing sound, high pitch than a murmur
  3. cardiodynia
    heart pain described as atypical or ishemic
  4. cardiomegaly
    enalrgement of heart
  5. claudication
    cramplike pains in the calives cause by poor circulation
  6. cyanosis
    lacks of oxygen, bluish/grayish discoloration
  7. diaphoresis
    profuse secretion of sweat
  8. dyspnea on exertion (DOE)
    difficult and/or painful breathing; if DOE, is experienced when effort is expneded
  9. emesis
    (vomit)
  10. murmur
    abnormal heart sound heard during systole, diastole, or both, wich may be described as gentle blowing, fluttering or hummiing sound
  11. pallor
    palness of skin and or mucosal membranes. on darker pigmented skin, it is noted in the inner surface of the lower eyelids or nail bends
  12. palpitations
    pounding or racing of heart, patient is aware of it
  13. pulmonary congestion
    excessive amount of blood in the pulmonary vessels, usually associated with heart failure
  14. shortness of breath (SOB)
    breathless, air hunger
  15. syncope
    fainting, loss of consciousness
  16. tachycardia
    rabid heartbeat, more than 100bpm
  17. thrill
    fine vibration felt by the examiner on palpitation
  18. venous distension
    enlarged or swollen veins
  19. coarctation of the aorta
    congential cardiac anomaly characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta, another term for narrowing
  20. patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
    abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth, most often in premature infants. Patent means open, occulude means closed
  21. septal defect
    any congential abnomality of the walls between the heart chambers
  22. atrial septal defect (ASD)
    hole in the wall between the upper chambers
  23. venricular septal defect (VSD)
    hole in the walls between the lower 2 chambers
  24. tetralogy of fallot
    congential cardiac anomoly that consists of 4 defects
  25. aortic stenosis (AS)
    narrowing of the aortic valve which may be acquired or congential
  26. mitral stenosis (MS)
    narrowing of the valve between the left and right ventricular caused by adhesions on the leaflets of the valve
  27. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole
  28. orthopnea
    condition in which a person must sit or stand to breathe compfortably
  29. tricuspid stenosis (TS)
    uncommon narrowing of the trucuspid valvue associated with lesions or other valves caused by rheumatic fever
  30. arrhythmia
    abnormal heartbeat. aka dysrhythmia
  31. atrioventricular block
    partial or complete heart block this is the result of a lack of electrical communication between the atria and the ventricles (aka heart block)
  32. bundle branch block (BBB)
    incomplete electrical conduction in the bundle branches, L or R
  33. ectopic beats
    heartbeats that occur outside of normal rhythm
  34. atrial
    atrial ectopic beats (AEB) are irregulr contractions of the atria (aka premature atrial contractions (PAC))
  35. ventricular
    ventricular ectopic (VEB) are irregular contractions of the ventricles (aka ventricular contractions (PVC))
  36. fibrilltion
    extrmeley rapid and irregular contractions (300-600/miin) occuring with or without an underlyin cardiovacuslar disorder
  37. atrial fibrillation (AF)
    most common type of arythmia
  38. ventricular arrythmia
    rapid, irregular ventricular contractionsl may be fatal unless reversed
  39. flutter
    extrmely rapid, but regular hearbeat (250-350)
  40. atrial flutter
    rapid, regular atrial rythm
  41. sick sinus syndrome (SSS)
    any abnormality of the sinus node that may include the ncesessity of an implantable pacemaker
  42. ventriclar trachyadia
    condition of ventricular contractions >100bpm
  43. angina pectoris
    paroxysmal chest pain that is often accompanied by shortnesss of breath and a sensation of impeding doom
  44. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    accumulation and hardening of plaque in the coronary arteries that eventually can deprive the heart muscle of oxygen, leading to angina
  45. cardiac tamponade
    compression of the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial sac
  46. cardiomyopathy
    progressive disorder of the ventricles of the heart
  47. endocarditis
    inflammation of the endocardium and heart valuves, characteriszed by lesions and microbes
  48. heart failure (HF)
    inability of the heart muscles to pump blood efficiently (aka CHF)
  49. pericarditis
    inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, with the possibility of pericardial effusion
  50. layers of the heart
    endocarium, myocardium, pericardium
  51. endocardium
    thin tissue that acts as a lining of each of the chambers and valvues
  52. myocardium
    cardiac muscle surrounding each of these chambers
  53. pericardium
    double folded layer of connective tissue that surround the heart
  54. aneurysm
    localized diltion of an artery caused by a congential or acquired weakness in the wall of the vessel
  55. arteriolsclerosis
    disease in which the arterial walls become thickened and lose their elasticity, without the presence of antheromas
  56. atherosclerosis
    form of arteriosclerosis in which medium and large arteries have atheromas,
  57. esophageal varices
    varicose veins that appear in the lower end of the esophagus as a result of portal hypertension; superficial and may cause ulceration and bleeding
  58. hemorrhoid
    varicose condition of the external or internal rectal veins that causes painful swellings at the anus
  59. hypotension
    low bp
  60. orthostatic hypotension
    experiencing low bp upon rising to standing position
  61. peripheral arterial occlusion
    blockage of blood flow to the extremities
  62. peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
    any vascular disorder limited to the extremeites; may affect not only the arteries and veins but also the lympatics
  63. Raynaud disease
    • idiopathic disease that is of unknown cause.
    • peripheral vascular system that causes intermittent cyanosis/erythmea of the distal ends of the fingers
  64. thrombophlebitis
    inflammation of either deep veins (deep being thrombosis (DVT)) or superficial veins (supericial vein thrombosis, or SVT)
  65. varicose veins
    elongated, dilated superficial veins (varices) with incompetent valves that permit reverse blood flow
  66. vasculitis
    inflammation of the blood vessels. aka angitis
  67. atrial myxoma
    benign growth usually occuring on the interatrial septum
  68. hemangioma
    noncancerous tumor of the blood vessels. may be conential "stork bite" or may develop later in life
  69. cardiac myxosarcoma
    rare heart cancer usually orginiating in the left atrium
  70. hemangiosarcoma
    rare cancer of cells that line blood vessels
  71. sphygmomanometer
    measures bp
  72. auscultation and percussion (A&P)
    listening to the internal sounds in the body, usually with a stethetscope, or by tapping
  73. angiocardiography
    injection of a radiplaque substance during cardiac catheterization for the purpose of imaging th heart and related structures
  74. cardiac catheterization
    threading a catheter into a heart to collect diagnostic info
  75. digital subtraction angiogrpahy (DSA)
    digital imaging process wherein contrast images are usted to "subtract" the noncontrast image of surrounding structures, leaving only a clear image of blood vessels
  76. echocardigraphy (ECHO)
    use of ultrasonic waves directed through the heart to study the structure and motion of the heart
  77. transephageal echocardiography (TEE)
    images the heart through a transducer introduced into the esphogaous
  78. exercise stress test (EST)
    imaging of the heart during exercise on a treadmill with the use of radioactive ethallium or technetium
  79. Holter monitor
    portable electrocardiograph the is worn to record the reaction of the heart to daily activities
  80. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    computerized imaging that uses the radiofrequency pulses in a magnetic field to detect areas of mycardial infaction, stenoses, and areas of blood flow
  81. MUGA scan
    multiple-gated acquistion scan is a noninvasive method of imaging a beating heart by tagging RBCs with a radio active substance
  82. myocardial perfusion imaging
    use of radionuclide to diagnose CAD, valvular or congential heart disease
  83. phlebography
    xray imaging of a vein after the introduction of a contrast dye
  84. positron emission tomography (PET)
    computerized nuclear medicine procedure that uses inhaled or injected radioactive substances to help identify how much a patient will benefit from revascularization procedures
  85. radiography
    postanterior and lateral chest xrays may be used to evaluate the size and shape of the heart
  86. Swan-Ganz catheter
    long, thin cardiac catheter with a tiny balloon at the top that is fed into the femoral artery near the groin and extended up to the L venrical.
  87. cardiac enzyme test
    blood test that measures the amount of cardiac enzymes characteristically released during the MI, determines the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphkinase in the blood
  88. lipid profile
    blood test to measure the lipids in the circulating blood
  89. phlebotomy
    the opening of a vein to withdraw a blood sample. aka venipuncture
  90. atherectomy
    removal of plaque from the coronary artery through a catheter with a rotating shaver or a laser
  91. automatic implantable cardioverter defribillator
    either external or implantable device that provides an electronic shock to the heart to restore a nomral rhythm
  92. cardiac peacemaker
    small, battery-operated device that helps the heart beat in a regular rhythm ; can be either internal or external
  93. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    manual external cardiac massage and artifiical respiration used to restart the heartbeat and breating of a ptient
  94. commissurotomy
    surgical division of a fibrous band or ring connecting corresponding parts of a body structure
  95. coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    open-heart surgery in which a pice of a blood vessel from another location is grafted onto one of the coronary arteries to reroute blood around a blockage
  96. exracorporeal circulation (ECC)
    use of a cariopulmonary machine to do the work of the heart during ope-heart procedures
  97. left ventrical assist device (LVAD)
    machine pump device that assists a ptient's weakend heart by pulling blood from the L ventricles into the pump and then ejecting it out into the aorta
  98. minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB)
    surgical prodecures in which the heart is still beating while a minimal incision is made over the blocked coronary artery and an artery from the chest wall is used as the bypass
  99. endovenous laser ablation (EVLT)
    thermal destruction of veins using laser fibers within a vein. used to treat varicose veins
  100. hemorrhoidectomy
    excision of hemorrhoids
  101. peripherally inserted central catherter (PICC)
    a means of allowing intravenous access for delivering chemotheraphy, antibiotics, IV fluids, and feeding for a prolonged time
  102. phlebectomy
    removal of a vein
  103. sclerotheraphy
    injection of a chemical solution into varicosisties to cause inflammation

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