Microbiology

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Author:
aliceaustin
ID:
53288
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2011-08-03 21:39:52
Tags:
AIDS
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Description:
AIDS
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  1. AIDS
    1981: in the US, cluster of Pneumocystis and Kaposi's sarcoma discovered in young homosexual men. The men showed loss of immune function.

    1983: Discovery of virus causing loss of immune function
  2. Origin of AIDS
    Crossed the species barrier into humans in Africa in the 1930s

    Patients who died in 1959 in Congo is the oldest known case

    Spread worldwide through modern transportation and unsafe sexual practices
  3. About AIDS:
    Virus destroys T4 lymphocytes (TH cells)

    • No TH cells = no immunity
    • -affects B cell activation which then affects Ab production
  4. Three Main Steps:
    Attachment--some ppl have defective host cell receptors

    Fusion

    Entry
  5. Can have:

    Active HIV infection in:
    -Macrophanges
    -CD4+ T cells

    Latent HIV infection in:
    -Macrophanges
    -CD4+ T cells
  6. The Stages of HIV Infection:
    Phase 1: asymptomatic or chronic lympademopathy

    Phase 2: symptomatic; early indications of immune failure

    Phase 3: AIDS indicator conditions
  7. Preventing AIDS
    Use condoms

    Use sterile needles (IDUs)

    Circumcision

    • Health care workers use universal precautions:
    • -wear gloves, gowns, masks, goggles
    • -do not recap needles
    • -risk of infection from infected needlestick injury is 0.3%
  8. Vaccine Difficulties
    Mutations

    Clades

    Antibody-binding sites "hidden"

    Infected cells not susceptible to CTLs

    Proviruses

    Latent viruses
  9. Chemotherapy
    Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    Protease inhibitors

    Fusion inhibitors
  10. HAART
    Highly active antiretroviral therapy

    • combinations of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus:
    • -non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or
    • -protease inhibitor

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