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Explain the Change equals Effort over Time (CET) change management model.
Excitement phase, hard work phase, turning point phase, institutionalized phase
Identify barriers to change.
- Element of surprise
- fear of becoming obsolete or unimportant to group
- personal conflict
Identify five key strategies to achieve change.
- behavior modification
- mandating change
- time allowance
- group dynamics
What is participation?
lets people learn and grow, gives them a sense of control and security, reduce fear of unknown since they help plan the future, you get better buy-in from your subordinates
What is behavior modification?
adapting people to change through positive reinforcement, people prefer encouragement to criticism and respond better to praise rather than censure, track daily praise vs. finding fault and note the results
What is mandating change?
a top-down approach, leader is responsible for major decisions, this is effective in certain circumstances but can brew resentment over time
What is time allowance?
timetables for change help leader and subordinates know what change to expect and when, everyone can see the overall goal and see how each activity contributes to change, increase understanding for the need of a schedule, enables you to see pitfalls in method, make necessary modifications to ease the transition
What are group dynamics in relation to change management?
benefits of a close-knit group are less resistance to change, the group helps bring about the change, and influence within a group yields positive results
What is an organization and what are 3 characteristics of an organization?
- systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish a specific purpose
- characterized by organizational structure, people, and goals
What is the difference between an effective and an efficient organization?
- Effectiveness: related to goals, how well you attain the desired ends
- Efficiency: related to the means, relationship between inputs and outputs, minimize wasteful resource usage
Identify the four basic management processes (functions).
Identify 4 steps to organizing.
- Determine the task
- establish the structure
- allocate resources
- develop procedures
Identify and describe 4 principles of organizing.
- Span of control (best number of people to oversee, depends on level in organization)
- functional grouping (work groups that make jobs easier and avoid overlap)
- unity of command (only one boss for each assigned task)
- delegation of authority (don't over or under delegate)
Identify examples of general managerial skills.
- conceptual (ability to coordinate interest/activities)
- interpersonal (understand, mentor, and motivate others)
- technical (use tools, procedures and techniques)
- political (build a power base and establish connections)
Identify examples of specific managerial skills.
- control organizational environment and resources
- organize and coordinate
- handling information
- provide growth and development
- motivate team and handle conflicts
- strategic problem solving
Identify the five personal conflict management styles.
What is forcing?
low cooperation high assertiveness, produces quick results, breeds hostility if used often, use under a time crunch, use when you have the expertise and know you're right, use when you must enforce an unpopular decision
What is accommodating?
high cooperation low assertiveness, use if the issue isn't critical and the relationship is more critical, use when the power gap is large (i.e. you and your supervisor)
What is avoiding?
you basically don't care about the conflict, use when the issue doesn't affect you or when the conflict is outside of the goal of the organization
What is compromising?
meeting halfway, everyone gets something they want but give up something they want at the same time, personal differences are typically involved and the differences are extreme, use when you need resolution and need to keep relationships intact, use under a time crunch
What is collaborating?
address concerns of all parties involved, using problem solving methods to collaborate and find a solution, the solution is win-win and everyone is happy with the solution, use when time and situation permit
Identify the four steps of conflict management.
- 1. diagnose source of conflict and circumstances
- 2. select appropriate strategy
- 3. implement strategy
- 4. see conflict through to a successful outcome
Identify 4 sources of conflict.
- Personal differences: emotionally charged, people-focused, not issue-focused
- Informational deficiencies: instructions interpreted differently, factual and straightforward, not about values
- Role incompatibility: different entities have different goals, a common superior typically mediates
- Environmental stress: shortage of resources, uncertainty
Identify Filley's antecedents to conflict.
- Ambiguous jurisdictions
- Conflict of interest
- Communication barriers
- Over-dependency on one party
- Differentiation in organization
- Association of parties
- Need for consensus
- Behavior regulations
- Unresolved prior conflicts
Define unprofessional relationships.
any personal relationship, whether pursued on or off-duty, that detracts from the authority of superiors or results in, or reasonable create the appearance of, favoritism, misuse of office or position, or the abandonment of organizational goals for personal interests.
A personal relationship between an officer and enlisted member which violates the customary bounds of acceptable behavior in the Air Force and prejudices good order and discipline, discredits the armed services, or operates to the personal disgrace or dishonor of the officer involved.
List the elements of fraternization.
- 1. The accused was a commissioned or warrant officer
- 2. The accused fraternized with enlisted members on terms of military equality
- 3. The accused knew the person to be an enlisted member
- 4. The accused violated the customs of the service that officers shall not fraternize with enlisted members on terms of military equality
- 5. The conduct was prejudicial to good order and discipline of the armed forces or of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces
Explain the effects of unprofessional relationships on unit discipline.
They can adversely affect unit morale, discipline, respect for authority, cohesion, or mission accomplishment
Identify the relationship between power and influence.
- Power: the capacity to produce an effect on others; it's the element that causes the change
- Influence: a change in attitudes, values, beliefs, or other behavior as a result of power.
Identify the five bases of power
What is expert power?
power of knowledge, followers can have expert power over leaders in some situations
What is legitimate power?
formal official authority due to rank, can be abused causing you to lose influence, needs to be balanced by other kinds of power
What is referent power?
influence based on relationship between leader and followers, takes time to develop, when a follower looks up to and respects the leader
What is reward power?
potential to influence others due to one's control over desired resources like awards or performance reports
What is coercive power?
potential to influence others through the administration of negative sanctions
Identify the three R's of transforming power into influence.
What is retribution?
- based on threats either by direct threats (coercion) or indirect threats (intimidation), reserved for crisis situations, use sparingly
- Pros: immediate effect, followers follow the specifications of the manager
- Cons: creates resistance, resentment and alienation, stifles initiative and motivation
What is reciprocity?
- achieving compliance by satisfying the needs of both parties (favors through social obligations)
- Pros: Results without resentment, both parties benefit, you can bargain without justifyingyour actions
- Cons: Requires trust, in the future you will come to expect negotiations for all requests, and it undercuts group commitment (a what's in it for me attitude)
What is reason?
- articulation of concept so subordinates know what you're doing and why and recognize the value of the plan
- Persuasion: explicit and direct, respects the judgment and ability of the subordinate
- Manipulation: based on disrespect of subordinates abilities and mistrust in their judgment
- Pros: higher compliance, people committed to group principles, superiors rate effectively, low job stress and high job satisfaction for subordinates
- Cons: it takes time to build the trust, and the more people involved the longer it takes; Takes 2 forms:
Define Sexual Assault as defined by the DoD.
Intentional sexual contact, characterized by use of force, physical threat, abuse of authority or when the victim does not or cannot consent. Includes rape, nonconsensual sodomy, indecent assault, or attempts to commit these acts. Occurs without regard to gender or spousal relationship. Consent does not mean the failure to offer physical resistance.
Identify the DoD policy on confidentiality.
- Restricted reporting: allows access to medical care and counseling without forcing an investigation; report to SARC or base medical provider
- Unrestricted reporting: forces investigation, report up chain of command
Describe the roles of perpetrator, facilitator, bystander, and victim.
- Perpetrator: assaults victim or prepares the victim for assault
- Facilitator: helps out perpetrator by enabling or encouraging them
- Bystander: not involved, observes the situation; can decide to act or not act
- Victim: assaulted by perpetrator
State the importance of displaying empathy to a victim of sexual assault.
Important to rebuild trust, so listen empathetically, reserve judgment, and ask what you can do to help. Don't gossip, ask why questions, or blame the victims