Chapter_14&15.txt

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harstanner
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53332
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Chapter_14&15.txt
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2010-12-04 19:52:12
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Anatomy Physiology Peripheral Nervous System Sense Organ
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Peripheral Nervous System and Sense Organ
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  1. describes the appearance of the lower end of the spinal cord and its spinal nerve as a horse’s tail
    Cauda equine
  2. swelling in the dorsal root of each spinal nerve
    Dorsal Root Ganglion
  3. supplies somatic motor and sensory fibers to smaller nerves that innervate the muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the head, neck and trunk
    Dorsal Ramus
  4. splitting and rejoining of autonomic fibers
    Sympathetic Rami
  5. are complex networks formed by the ventral rami of most spinal nerves (not T2 through T12) subdividing and then joining together to form individual nerves
    Plexuses
  6. region of skin surface area supplied by afferent (sensory) fibers of a given spinal nerve
    Dermatome
  7. skeletal muscle or muscles supplied by efferent (motor) fibers of a given spinal nerve
    Myotome
  8. axons of sensory and motor neurons
    Mixed Cranial Nerve
  9. mainly axons of motor neurons only
    Sensory Cranial Nerve
  10. mainly axons of motor neurons and a small number of sensory fibers (proprioceptors)
    Motor Cranial Nerve
  11. either contraction of smooth or cardiac muscle or secretion by glands
    Autonomic (visceral) Reflex
  12. contraction of skeletal muscles
    Somatic Reflex
  13. center of reflex arc is in the spinal cord
    Spinal Reflex
  14. center of reflex are is in the brain
    Cranial Reflex
  15. action that results from a nerve impulse passing over a reflex are; predictable response to a stimulus
    Reflex
  16. includes all voluntary motor pathways outside the central nervous system
    Somatic Nervous System
  17. reflexes deviate from normal in certain diseases, and reflex testing is a valuable diagnostic aid
    Somatic Flexes of Clinical Importance
  18. extension of the lower leg in response to tapping the patellar tendon; tendon and muscles are stretched, stimulating muscle spindles and initiating conduction over a two-neuron reflex arc
    Knee Jerk Reflex (aka Patellar Reflex)
  19. center of reflex are located in spinal cord gray matter
    Spinal Cord Reflex
  20. mediating impulses enter and leave at the same cord segment
    Segmental Reflex
  21. mediating impulses come from and go to the same side of the body
    Ipsilateral Reflex
  22. result of type of stimulation used to evoke reflex
    Stretch or Myotatic Reflex
  23. produced by extensors of the lower leg
    Extensor Reflex
  24. tapping tendon is stimulus that elicits reflex
    Tendon Reflex
  25. result of deep location of receptors stimulated to produce reflex
    Deep Reflex
  26. extension of the foot in response to tapping the Achilles tendon; tendon reflex and deep reflex mediated by two-neuron spinal arcs; centers lie in first and second sacral segments of the cord
    Ankle Jerk Reflex (aka Achilles Reflex)
  27. flexion of all toes and a slight turning in and flexion of the anterior part of the foot in response to stimulation of the outer edge of the sole
    Plantar Reflex
  28. Extension of great toe, with or without fanning of other toes, in response to stimulation of outer margin of sole of foot; present in normal infants until approximately 1 ½ yrs of age and then becomes suppressed when corticospinal fibers become fully myelinated
    Babinski Sign
  29. winking in response to the cornea being touched; mediated by reflex arcs with sensory fibers in the ophthalmic branch of the 5th cranial nerve, center in the pons, and motor fibers in the 7th cranial nerve
    Corneal Reflex
  30. drawing of the abdominal wall in response to stroking the side of the abdomen; superficial reflex; mediated by arcs with sensory and motor fibers in T9 – T12 and centers in these segments of the cord
    Abdominal Reflex
  31. efferent neuron with which a preganglionic neuron synapses within autonomic ganglion
    Postganglion
  32. conducts impulses from the central nervous system to an autonomic ganglion
    Preganglionic Neuron
  33. short branch by which some postganglionic axons return to a spinal nerve
    Gray Ramus
  34. cell bodies are located in nuclei in the brainstem or lateral gray columns of the sacral cord; extend a considerable distance before synapsing with postganglionic neurons
    Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neurons
  35. dendrites and cell bodies are located in parasympadendrites and cell bodies are located in parasympathetic ganglia which are embedded in or near autonomic effector
    Parasympathetic Postganglionic Neurons
  36. release norepinephrine; axons of postganglionic sympathetic neurons
    Adrenegic fibers
  37. release acetylcholine; axons of preganglionic sympathetic neurons and of preganglionic
    Cholinergic fibers
  38. enzyme that breaks up neurotransmitter molecules taken back up by the synaptic knobs
    Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
  39. enzyme that breaks down the remaining neurotransmitter
    Catechol-O-methyl Transferase (COMT)
  40. slows heartbeat and acts to promote digestion and elimination
    Acetylcholine
  41. responds to stimuli by converting them to nerve impulses
    general response of receptor
  42. a graded response and develops when adequate stimuluscacts on receptor; when threshold is reached, an action potential is triggered
    Receptor Potential
  43. a functional characteristic of receptors; receptors potential decreases over time in response to a continuous stimulus, which leads to a decreased rate of impulse conduction and a decreased intensity of sensation
    Adaptation
  44. small, with less tightly coiled dendritic endings within their capsule; involved in touch, low-frequency vibrations
    Bulboid Corpuscles (Krause end bulbs)
  45. relatively large and superficial in placement; mediates touch and low frequency vibration; large numbers in hariless skin areas, such as niples, fingertips, and lips
    Tactile Corpucles (Meissner Corpuscle)
  46. six types; all have connective tissue capsules and are mechanorecptors;
    Encapsulated Nerve Endings
  47. activated when "deformed" to generate receptor potential
    Mechanorecptors
  48. activated by amount or changing concentration of certain chemicals, e.g. taste and smell; finite system
    Chemoreceptors
  49. activated by changes in temperature
    Thermoreceptors
  50. activated by intense stimuli that may damage tissue; sensation produced in pain; deep in finger or cutenous
    Nociceptors
  51. found only in the eye; respond to light stimuli if the intensity is great enough to generate a receptor potential
    Photoreceptors
  52. concentrated in the hypothalamus; activated by changes in concentration of electrolytes (osmolarity) in extracellular fluids
    Osmoreceptors
  53. have a flattened capsule and are deeply located in the dermis; mediate crude and persistent touch; may be secondary temperature receptors for heat (85 - 120)F
    Bulbous (Ruffini) Corpuscles
  54. large mechanoreceptors that respond quickly to senstaion of deep pressure, high-frequency vibration, and stretch; found in deep dermis and in joint capsules; they adapt quickly, and sensations they evoke seldom last for long periods
    Lamellar or Pacini Corpuscles
  55. two types; operate to provide body with information concerning muscle length and strength of muscle contraction
    Stretch Receptors
  56. composed of 5 to 10 intrafusal fibers lying between and parallel to regular (extrafusal) muscle fibers
    Muscle Spindle
  57. located at juction between muscle tissue and tendon; made up of encapsulated neuron endings associated with collagen bundles
    Golgi Tendon Organs
  58. located on olfactory sensory neurons that touch the olfactory epithelium lining the upper surface of the nasal cavity
    Olfactory cells
  59. chemoreceptors; gas molecules or chemicals dissolved in the mucus covering the nasal epithelium stimulate the olfactory cells
    Olfactory cells
  60. located in most superior portion of the nasal vavity
    Olfactory Epithelium
  61. extremely sensitive and easily fatiged
    Olfactory receptors
  62. when the level of odor-producing chemicals reaches a threshold level
    Olfactory pathway
  63. sense organs that respond to gustatory or taste stimuli; associated with papillae
    Taste Bud
  64. sensory cells in taste buds
    Gustatory Cells
  65. the visible portion of the ear
    Auricle or Pinna
  66. tube leading from the auricle into the temporal bone and ending at the tympanic membrane
    External Acoustic Meatus
  67. Tiny, epithelium-lined cavity hollowed out of the temporal bone
    Middle Ear
  68. attached to the inner surface of the tympanic membrane
    Malleus (hammer)
  69. attached to the malleus and stapes
    Incus (anvil)
  70. attached to the incus
    Stapes (stirrup)
  71. opening into inner ear; stapes fits here
    Oval Window
  72. opening into inner ear; covered by a membrane
    Round Window
  73. made up of the vesibule, cochlea, and semicircular canals
    Bony Labyrinth
  74. made up of utricle and saccule inside the vestibule, cochlear duct inside the cochlea, and membranous semicircular ducts inside the bony semicircular canals
    Membranous Labyrinth
  75. organs involved with balance
    Vestibule and Semicircular canal
  76. involved with hearing; bony labyrinth;
    Cochlea
  77. clear, potassium-rich fluid filling the membranous labyrinth
    Endolymph
  78. similar to cererospinal fluid, surrounds the membranous labyrinth, filling the space between the membranous tunnel and its contents and the bony walls that surrounds it
    Perilymph
  79. rests on the basilar membrane; consists of supporting cells and hair cells; also called spiral organs
    Organ of Corti
  80. floor of the cochlear duct
    Basilar (spiral) Membrane
  81. lies inside the cochlea; only part of the internal ear concerned with hearing; shaped like triangular tube
    Cochlear Duct
  82. cone-shaped core of bone that houses the spiral ganglion, which consists of cell bodies of the first sensory neuronsin the auditory relay
    Modiolus
  83. the roof of the cochlear duct
    Vesibular membrane
  84. created by vibration
    sound
  85. the central section of the bony labrinth; the utricle and saccule are the membranous structures within the what?
    Vestibule
  86. found in each temporal bone
    Three semicircular canals
  87. ability to sense the position of the head relative to gravity or to sense acceleration or deceleration
    Static Equilibrium
  88. muscular response to restore the body and its parts to their normal position when they they have been displaced; caused by stimuli of a macula and impulses from proprioceptors and from the eyes
    Righting Reflexes
  89. needed to maintain balance when the head or body is rotated or suddenly moved; able to detect changes both in direction and rate at which movement occurs
    Dynamic Equilibrium
  90. gelatinous cap in which the hair cells of each crista are embedded
    Cupula
  91. give some protection against foreign objects entering they eye; cosmetic purpose
    eyebrows and eyelashes
  92. consist of voluntary muscle and skin with tarsal plate
    Eyelids
  93. opening between the eyelids
    Palpebral fissure
  94. where the upper and lower eyelids join
    Angle or Canthus
  95. structures that secrete tears and drain them from the surface of the eyeball
    Lacrimal Apparatus
  96. size and shape of a small almond; located at the upper, outer margin of each orbit; approximately a dozen small ducts lead from each gland; drain tears onto the conjuctiva
    Lacrimal Glands
  97. small channels that empty into lacrimal sac
    Lacrimal Canals
  98. located in a groove in the lacrimal bone
    Lacrimal Sacs
  99. small tubes that extend from the lacrimal sac into the inferior meatus of the nose
    Nasolacrimal ducts
  100. skeletal muscles that attach to the outside of the eyeball and to the bones of the orbit
    Extrinsic Eye Muscles
  101. smooth muscles located within the eye
    Intrinsic Eye Muscles
  102. regulates size of pupil; amount of light; colored part of the eye; consists of circular and radial smooth muscle fibers that form a doughnut shaped structure; attaches to the ciliary body
    Iris
  103. contros the shape of the lens
    Ciliary mucsle
  104. the outer layer of the eyeball
    Fibrous
  105. tough, white fibruos tissue of the eyeball
    Sclera
  106. the transparent anterior portion that lies over the iris; no blood vessels found in the cornea or in the lens of the eye
    Cornea
  107. ring shaped venous sinus found deep within the anterior portion of the sclera at its juction with the cornea of the eye
    Sclera Venous Sinus (Canal of Schlemm)
  108. pigmented membrane lining more than two thirds of the posterior fibrous out coat of eye
    Choroid
  109. thickening of choroidd, fits between anterior margin of retina and posterior margin of iris; ciliary muscle lies in anterior part of ciliary body; ciliary processes fold in ciliary body
    Ciliary body
  110. attached to the ciliary processes and blends with the elastic capsule of the lens, to hold it in place
    Suspensory ligament
  111. space anterior to the iris and posterior to the cornea
    Anterior Chamber
  112. lies in from of the lens; has two subdivisions
    Anterior Cavity
  113. critical to normal visual function
    Retinal Blood Vessels
  114. second cranial nerve (CN II) extends from the eyeball to the brain
    Optic nerve
  115. all axons of these neurons extend back to the optic disk; part of the sclera, which contains perforations through which the fibers emerge from the eyeballs as the optic nerve
    Ganglionic cells
  116. less nermerous than rods; most densely concentrated in the fovea centralis in the macula lutea; low light
    Cones
  117. absent from the fovea and macula; increased in density toward the periphery of the retina; regular light
    Rods
  118. visual receptors, sensitive to light rays
    Photoreceptor cells
  119. Made up of an outer layer of pigmented epithelium (pigmented retina) and an inner layer of nervous tissue (sensory retina)
    Retina
  120. movement of the two eyeballs inward so that their visual axes come together at the object view
    Convergence of Eyes
  121. pupil constricts in bight light
    Photopupil reflex
  122. constriction of pupil that occurs with accommodation of the lens in near vision
    Near Reflex
  123. muscles of iris are important to formation of a clear retinal image
    Constriction of pupil
  124. increase in curvature of the lens to achieve the greater refraction needed for near vision
    Accommodation of lens
  125. deflection, or bending of light rays produced by light rays passing obilquely from one transparent medium into anothe of different optical density
    Refraction of light ray
  126. small space posterior to the iris and anterior to the lens
    Posterior Chamber
  127. larger than the anterior cavity; occupies all the space posterior to the lens, suspensory ligament, and ciliary body
    Posterior cavity
  128. fills both chambers of the anterior cavity; clear, watery fluid that oftens leaks out when the eye is injured; formed from blood in capillaries located in the ciliary body
    Aqueous humor
  129. fills the posterior cavity; semi-solid material; helps to maintain sufficient intraocular pressure, with aqueous humor, to give the eyeball its shape
    Vitreous Humor

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