Pieces MH3

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Pieces MH3
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  1. T: Boris Gudonov
    • G: Russian Opera
    • C: Musorgsky
    • N: Russian
    • D: 1868-74
    • SF:


    • “sensitive musical treatment” of revered text by Aleksander Pushkin
    • vocal lines: syllabic, rhythms and pitches enhance RUssian language’s natural accents; resemble liturgical or operatic recitative
    • non-functional harmonies (tritone relations, modes, chromatic mediants, etc)
    • non-developmental: instead “accumulative blocks”
    • chorus sings actual folk melody
  2. T: Carmen
    • G: opera Comique
    • C: Bizet
    • N: French
    • D: 1875
    • SF:

    • despite tragic ending, Carmen uses OC conventions
    • written with spoken dialogue (recits + after GB’s death)
    • Ingenue, femme fatale, dutiful soldier
    • set form: couplet and refain (aaB aaB) in habanera
    • illustrates EXOTICISM (depiction of foreign cultures, esp. popular in France), here Spanish setting, gypsy “culture)
    • habanera = Cuban dance, slow duple meter, repeatted dotted rhythm
    • Bizet borrowed melody by Sebastian de Yradier (1809-65)
  3. T: Carnaval
    • G: Character piece
    • C: Schumann
    • N: German
    • D: 1835
    • Significant Features:
    • - some CPs depict members of NZfM’s League of David;

    • Florestan = impulsize extrovert, music suddenly changes tempo, range, dynamics (dance-like)
    • Eusebius = introverted dreamer, nebulous cross rhythms, unusual rhythmic subdivisions = reverie
    • March of David’s League Against the Philistines = virtuosit, vut a march in 3/4?!; uses hypermeter
    • Coquette = flirtatious waltz during Mardi gras
    • Schumann loved word games, motive of Carnaval is A-Eb-C-B, in German = ASCH, hometown of Schumann’s girlfriend Ernestine von Fricken
  4. T: Christus factus est (Christ was obedient)
    • C: Bruckner
    • G: motet
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1884
    • SF:

    illustrates principles of Caecilian Movement

    • named for patron saint of music
    • centered in German speaking lands
    • sought to restore Catholic Church’s music to its status during Renaissance
    • emulates Renaissance polyphony: a capela, textual clarity through homophony and light imitation, occasionally modal
    • some “word painting”; obediens = imitation; mortem = low range dissonance
    • but highly chromatic dissonances unprepared internal cadences far removed from tonic
  5. T: Das Rheingold (The Rhine Gold)
    • C: Wagner
    • N: German
    • D: 1854
    • G: Music Drama
    • SF:

    • first of 4 MDs in tetralogy, Der Ring des Nibelungen
    • Illustrates conventions of music drama, esp “Helden” vocal style, multiple leitmotifs used in all 4 RIng MDs
  6. T: Der Freischutz (The Free Shooter)
    • G: GRO (German Romantic Opera)
    • C: Weber
    • N: German
    • D: 1821
    • SF:

    Wolf’s Glen Scene

    • where devil (Samiel) appears to mortals
    • tonal relations (C-F#) = tritone
    • melodrama (dialogue spoken against a musical background)
    • Eerie orchestration (tremolos, extreme ranges, echoes)
  7. T: Der Lindenbaum (The Linden Tree) from Winterreise (winter Journey, Müller)
    • W=song cycle= group of songs by 1 composer
    • Poems normally by 1 poet
    • Usually tells story
    • Often musically unified
    • C: Schubert
    • N: Austrian *
    • G: Lied
    • D: 1827
    • Significant Features:
    • - mimetic accompaniment imitates wind in leaves, but also reflects character’s interior agitation

    AABA’=medieval bar form (romanticized)
  8. T: Dichterliebe (A Poet’s Love)
    • G: Song Cycle
    • C: R. Schumann
    • N: German
    • D: 1840
    • Significant Features:
    • Key scheme:

    secondary key in one song becomes primary key in the next

    1st lied:

    • In wunderschonen Monat Mai (In the wonderful month of May)
    • textual image (yearning) = delayed resolutions
    • simple strophic form
    • long piano postlude (typical of RS’s lieder)
    • connects to second song by ending on V7 (whole song tonally ambiguous)


    7th lied:

    • Ich grolle Nicht (I won’t complain)
    • textual image: repeated complaint = repeated chords
    • exaggerated ironically by RS’s extra repetitions of refrain, “I won’t complain”
    • through composed form with traces of varied strophic form
  9. T: Ein deutsches Requiem (A German Requiem)
    • G: oratorio* C: JB N: German D: 1857-68**
    • *Not liturgical (esp. not a Latin mass), but is a large work for
    • chorus, orchestra, vocal soloists on a biblical subject
    • **1st thought JB wrote EdR after mother died in 1865, but most written before
    • SF: JB chose texts from Lutheran Bible, freely arranged them in 7 movements
    • 4th mvmt., How Lovely is Thy Dwelling Place

    • Psalm 84
    • Shows Brahms preferred clear forms
    • Rondo ABACA’
    • A’ could be considered a coda, as in some rondos by WAM and Schubert
  10. T: Elijah
    • G: OratorioC: MendelssohnN: GermanD: 1846 (England)
    • SF: final chorus (“And then shall your light break forth”)
    • bilingual libretto (English & German)
    • Homophony & fugal sections alternate as in Handel & Haydn (Baroque – Classical)
    • But tonal plan is based on thirds
    • D major – F# minor (romantic)
    • Choral parts suited to amateur church choirs & choral societies, common in 1800’s
  11. T: Gretchen am spinnrade (Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel) from Goethe’s Faust
    • C, N, G @ above D=1814 (!) : He was 17 years old
    • Significant Features:
    • - through-composed form: =


    poem’s stanzaic division do not determine musical repetition (as in strophic forms)


    • - enables composer to adapt music to words;
    • - tonality moves further from tonic in “waves”,
    • - tonic returns when Gretchen repeats “My peace is gone”
    • - Extremely mimetic accompaniment (3 layers) mimics spinning wheel

    Sops only once (Faust’s kiss)
  12. T: La Traviata (The Fallen Woman)
    • D: 1853
    • G: Italian Serious Opera
    • C: Verdi
    • N: Italian
    • SF:

    1st 4 events of Act III occur without pauses and share common motives

    1. Maid notifies Violetta (herione) that Alfredo (hero) has returned

    • Hero enters (dotted rhythms related to 1)
    • Duet in cavatina style (dotted rhythms)
    • Duet chits to cabaletta style (scale from 1)
  13. T: Les Huguenots
    • G: French Grand Opera
    • C: Meyerbeer
    • N: German (ironic)
    • D: 1836
    • SF:

    • Historical setting: 24 August 1572: St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (3000+ killed)
    • Catholics vs. Protestants
    • “Nights of 7 Stars” - 7 important, virtuosic roles
    • all 7 heard in Act 2 Oath Scene
    • uses Protestant chorale “A mighty Fortress is our God” to depict Huguenots
    • Illustrates new social order, aristocrats try, but fail to control historical events
  14. T: Les Preludes
    • G; Symphonic Poem
    • C: Liszt
    • N: Hungarian
    • D: pub. 1856
    • SF: Program related to poem by Lamartine; “double function form” resembles both sonata form and sonata cycle

    • Introduction
    • T1 and T2 = 1st mvmt
    • Development 1; (storm in sonata) (scherzo in sonata)
    • Development 2; (pastoral in sonata) (slow mvmt in sonata)
    • Recap. ; (march in sonata) ( finale in sonata)
    • Coda = return of introduction
  15. T: Nabucco
    • G: Italian serious opera
    • C: Verdi
    • N: Italian
    • D: 1842
    • SF:

    Captures sentiments of the Risorgimento =

    political movement (1814-70) that soght to free Italian city-states from oppressive foreign rule and unify them under on Italian king

    • Famouis chorus “Va pensiero” interpreted as protest song
    • “oom-pah-pah” texture typical of Italian opera, focus is on melody
    • in the decades after Nabucco’s success, Italians chanted Verdi’s name as a code
    • V = VIva Long Live
    • E = Emmanuel Emmanuel, King of Sardinia
    • R = Re King
    • D = Di of
    • I = Italia Italy

    Verdi grew dissatisfied with “numbers” as a way of presenting a “realistic” drams
  16. T: Nahe des Geliebten (Heaness of the Beloved)
    • G: lied
    • C: Franz Schubert
    • N: Austrian*EC
    • D: 1815
    • Significant Features:

    • strophic form
    • off tonic beginning (related to textual image)
  17. T: Nocturne in Db Major, Op. 27, no.2
    • G: CP
    • C: Chopin
    • N: Polish
    • D: 1835
    • Significant Features:
    • nocturne = night piece; cantabile melody in right hand supported by rocking widely spaced arpeggios in left; Chopin admired John Field’s nocturnes, but also imitated Italian operatic style of 1830s;

    • two melodies alternate (ABA’B’A”B”+Coda)
    • 1st harmonically stable, 2nd unstable minor
    • both increasingly ornate with each repetition
    • exploits rubato, flexible tempo modification for which Chopin was greatly admired
    • Impeccable control of dissonance
    • 1st melody includes long appoggiatura
    • climax = “best suspension ever”
  18. T: Norma
    • G: Italian serious opera
    • C: Bellini
    • N: Italian
    • D: 1831
    • SF:

    • Casta diva (Chaste goddess) still divided into cavatina-cabaletta (standard by 1830s)
    • but cavatina had evolved into slow, sustained, melodious section, sometimes with choral interjections
    • this bel canto cavatina style influenced Chopin’s nocturnes
    • Recording with Maria Callas, controversial soprano who helped revive bel canto opera during 1950’s-60s, after long period of neglect
  19. T: Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream
    • C: Mendelssohn
    • N: German
    • D: 1826!
    • G: concert overture = independent 1-mvmt. orchestral work; not prelude to opera, oratorio, or play; essentially Mendelssohn’s invention
    • Significant Features:
    • - Clear sonata form with conventional keys, but with EMA’s (extra musical associations) as in “Eroica”;
    • Short motto (as in Schubert’s “Unfinished”) = eyelids close (Liszt)
    • T1= Fairies scurry
    • T2=melody countermelody
    • CT=Bottom(character) as groom-donkey
    • (1843: FM wrote more music for stage production and AMND = incidental music)
  20. T: Piano Quintet in F minor, Op. 34
    • G: piano quintet (piano + string 4tet)
    • C: Brahms N: German D: 1862-4*
    • * 1st written as string 5tet, then revised for 2 pianos; C. Schumann
    • recommended piano + 4tet

    • Ambiguous opening harmonies (C or Ab?)
    • Changes of meter (6/8 vs. 2/4)
    • Ambiguous bar lines, typical of JB’s music
    • Abrupt dynamic changes (as in LvB)
    • Form is still ABA, but A&B are both irregularly multisectional (i.e. NOT rounded binary form)


    • In 1863 Brahms was not hired as the Hamburg Symphony’s conductor: he
    • moved to Vienna to conduct a Singakademie (choral society)
    • He the wrote many choral works including
  21. T: quintet in A major, D. 667 (“Trout”)
    • G: Piano Quintet
    • normal scoring = piano + SQ
    • Schubert’s = piano + violin, viola, cello, bass (bass not normally used)
    • C: Schubert
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1819
    • 4th of 5 movements
    • (! not sonata cycle)
    • is theme & variations based on Schubert’s song
    • Die Forelle [The Trout] in romantic version of medieval bar from AABA.
  22. T: Piano Trio in G Minor, Op. 17
    • G: piano trio
    • C: Clara Schumann
    • N: German
    • D: 1846
    • Significant Features:

    slow mvmt in ABA’ form (I-vi-I)

    • A = nocturne texture (see Chopin later)
    • B = agitated
    • A & B each instrument takes turn with theme
  23. T: Polonaise in Ab Major, Op. 53
    • G: CP
    • C: Chopin
    • N: Polish
    • D: 1842
    • Significant Features:

    polonaise = aristocratic Polish dance in triple meter

    choreographic accents on beats 1 & 3

    • Form = intro, A B transition A, Coda
    • B section features virtuosic octaves in left hand
  24. T: Symphonie fantastique
    G: program symphony = a type of

    • Program music = **Instrumental** music is endowed with literary or pictorial associations (something "outside" music)
    • Composers typically provide a text (a program) to explain extra musical associations

    • C: Berlioz
    • N: French
    • D: 1830

    Background of Symphonie fantastique

    1827 British Shakespeare troupe performs in Paris


    • + HB falls in love & becomes obsessed with lead actress, Harriett Smithson
    • - 1833 HB & HS marry, one child, then separate
    • - Heard music when he thought of his wife, melody that is present throughout SF

    • Significant Features:
    • - Uses Idée fixe, fixed idea, melody that represents the "beloved"
    • - Uses cyclical form, same theme = multiple movements

    The idée fixe appears in all 5 mvmts. (precedent = LvB's 6), but varied each time = thematic transformation

    • o Recurrent material is transformed
    • + Usually found in programmatic, cyclical works

    • * Mvmt. 1 , Reveries & Passions
    • o i.f. is beloved's beauty

    • * Mvmt. 2, At a ball,
    • o i.f. interrupts waltz (dance movement, LvB's 9th has a scherzo in 2nd)

    • * Mvmt. 3, Scene in the Country: shepards' piping, (adagio)
    • o i.f.returns when artist becomes jealous

    • * Mvmt. 4, March to Scaffold,
    • o i.f. interrupted to represent artist's execution

    • * Mvmt. 5, Dream of Witches' Sabbath
    • o Grotesque version of i.f. combined with dies irae (day of wrath)

    Plainchant from requiem mass
  25. T: Symphony No. 4 in Eb Major (“Romantic”)
    • C: Bruckner
    • G: Symphony
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1874-80
    • SF of Bruckner Symphonies:

    • 9 numbered + “00” and “0”
    • most in several versions, reflecting Bruckner’s insecurity (accepted advice regarding revisions)
    • still observes sonata cycle
    • 4 mvmts, no overt programs
    • reflect LvB’s influence

    • 1st mvmts begin like LvB’s 9th (nebulous haze = tremolos, motivic fragments)
    • 3rd mvmts = scherzos

    Bruckner’s own traits:

    • expansive forms, “theme groups” in separate parts of exposition
    • prominent brasses
    • solos, section, chorales in finales
    • organ-like orchestration (choirs of instruments)
    • characteristic rhythm (duple-triple)
  26. T: Symphony No. 4 in D minor
    • G: symphony
    • C: Shumann
    • N: German
    • D: 1841, revised 1851
    • SF: combines tradition and innovation; 4 mvmts but no pauses between them; 1st mvmt in conventional sonata form, but all its themes are related to one motive (p. 525 in anthology); unusual recapitulation: tonic arrives but not T1-T2-CT, instead development’s “new” themes appear; T1-T2 “reserved” for return in 4th mvmt
  27. T: Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90
    • G: Symphony
    • C: Brahms
    • N: German
    • D: 1883

    • Opening motto contains cross relation (Ab-A-Ab) that resonates in 1st mvmt’s “progressive” (but Schubertian) tonal plan
    • Exposition Recapitulation
    • T1 F minor (Ab) F minor (Ab)
    • T2 A Major (A) D Major (A)
    • CT A minor D minor

    Coda restores f/F (Ab/A)

    note balanced 3rds above and below tonic
  28. T: Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 (Pathetique)
    • G: Symphony
    • C: Tchaikovsky
    • N: Russian
    • D: 1893
    • SF:

    • 1st performance puzzled audience, since untitled symphony’s finale was funeral slow movement
    • 2nd performance, 5 days after PT’s death, title revealed, interpreted as farewell or suicide note
    • 3rd movement = triumphant scherzo before tragedy

    • combines scherzo figuration with march
    • roughly a “sonata form without development”
    • AB = exposition A’B’ = recap Coda
    • I, IV = expo I, I = recap
  29. T: Symphony No. 8 in B minor (“Unfinished”)[“symphony, oh symphony, never finished”-lyrics]
    • G: Symphony
    • C: Schubert
    • N: Austrian
    • D: 1822
    • Significant Features:
    • - 4 “new” romantic traits

    Begins with “motto” – a short preface in same tempo as main sonata form; returns at important points in form

    • - T1 new style o orchestration, oboe & clarinet blend in “haunting”, unison melody
    • - short transition, modulation not dramatized (not “chugga-chugga”)

    T2 in VI (3rd relations gradually replace I-V)
  30. T: The Barber of Seville
    • G: Italian Comic Opera
    • C: Rossini
    • N: Italian
    • D: 1816
    • SF:

    • Una voce poco fa (A voice just now)
    • illustrates typical bel canto traits
    • division of arias into cavatina and cabaletta
    • Cavatina = “drawn” from recitative, but voice not speech-like (melodic even virtuosic); still punctuated by orchestral chords
    • Cabaletta = faster, more rhythmic, bravura; uses “Rossini crescendo”= same figure repeated with increasing volume
  31. T: “Un Sospiro” (A Sigh), from 3 concert etudes (study pieces)
    • G: CP
    • C: Liszt
    • N: Hungarian
    • D: rev. 1848
    • 19th century etudes often infused with “poetic” EMA’s
    • Un Sospiro develops 4 techinques:

    • Cross-hands melody
    • Harp-like accompaniment
    • Black keys (pentatonic)
    • Famous “three hand” texture

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