Terms MH3

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Terms MH3
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  1. CHARACTER PIECES (CPs)
    • short, lyrical, create atmosphere/mood
    • sometimes have extra-musical associations (EMAs), sometimes dance-like
    • replaced sonatas and variations during 19th century
    • often published in groups or “cycles”
  2. concert overture
    independent 1-mvmt. orchestral work; not prelude to opera, oratorio, or play; essentially Mendelssohn’s invention

    Mendelssohn’s Overture to a Midsummer Night’s Dream
  3. Developing variation
    Schoenberg term each theme varied with each statement new material derives from what has preceded

    Brahm’s Piano Quintet in F minor, Op. 34
  4. Double Function Form
    resembles both sonata form and sonata cycle

    • Introduction
    • T1 and T2 = 1st mvmt
    • Development 1; (storm in sonata) (scherzo in sonata)
    • Development 2; (pastoral in sonata) (slow mvmt in sonata)
    • Recap. ; (march in sonata) ( finale in sonata)
    • Coda = return of introduction


    Liszt’s Les Preludes
  5. French Grand Opera
    • see handout
    • Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots
  6. German Romantic Opera
    • see handout
    • Weber’s Piano Quintet in F minor, Op. 34
  7. Italian Comic Opera
    • see handout
    • Rossini’s The Barber of Seville
  8. Italian Serious Opera
    • see handout
    • Bellini’s Norma
    • Verdi’s Nabucco
    • Verdi’s La Traviata (The Fallen Woman)
  9. Motet
    choral settings of Latin devotional texts, a capella or with modest instrumental accompaniment, usually 1 mvmt

    Bruckner’s Christus factus est (Christ was obedient)
  10. Music Drama
    • see handout
    • Wagner’s Das Rheingold (The Rhine Gold)
  11. Opera Comique
    distinct genre since the 1700s, see handout

    Bizet’s Carmen
  12. Oratorio
    Mendalssohn wrote 2

    • Elijah (Mendalssohn)
    • Brahm’s Ein deutsches Requiem (A German Requiem)
  13. Piano Quintet
    piano + string 4tet

    • Schubert’s Quintet in A major, D. 667 (“Trout”)
    • Brahm’s Piano Quintet in F minor, Op. 34
  14. Piano Trio
    Clara Schumann’s Piano Trio in G Minor, Op. 17
  15. Program SymphonyProgram
    • music = **Instrumental** music is endowed with literary or pictorial associations (something "outside" music)
    • Composers typically provide a text (a program) to explain extra musical associations


    Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique
  16. Russian Opera
    Musorgsky’s Boris Gudonov
  17. Song Cycle
    • group of songs by 1 composer
    • some of Schumann’s best lieder appear in SONG CYCLES that are unified by recurrent music or a coherent key scheme

    • Schubert’s Der Lindenbaum (The Linden Tree) from Winterreise (winter Journey, Müller)
    • Schumann’s Dichterliehe (A Poet’s Love)
  18. Symphonic Poem
    usually 1 mvmt, but sections in different tempos

    Liszt’s Les Preludes
  19. Bar Form
    AABA’=medieval bar form (romanticized)

    Schubert’s Der Lindenbaum (The Linden Tree) from Winterreise (winter Journey, Müller)
  20. Rondo
    Rondo ABACA’

    4th mvmt of Brahms’ Ein deutsches Requiem (A German Requiem)
  21. Sonata Form without Development
    3rd mvmt of Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 (Pathetique)
  22. Strophic Form
    • Schubert’s Nahe des Geliebten (Heaness of the Beloved)
    • Schumann’s In wunderschonen Monat Mai (In the wonderful month of May) [simple strophic form]
  23. Ternary Form
    ABA

    • Clara Schumann’s Piano Trio in G Minor, Op. 17
    • Brahm’s Piano Quintet in F minor, Op. 34 [Form is still ABA, but A&B are both irregularly multisectional]
  24. Thematic Transformation
    Recurrent material is transformed

    Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique
  25. Through Composed Form
    Schumann’s Ich grolle Nicht (I won’t complain) [through composed form with traces of varied strophic form]
  26. A Mighty Fortress is Our God
    Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots uses Protestant chorale “A mighty Fortress is our God” to depict Huguenots
  27. Absolute Music
    • Brahm’s is identified with “absolute music” -= “pure” instrumental music,
    • “free of” EMAS, instead emphasizes objective formal properties and
    • abstract expressive content.
  28. Bach Revival
    • 1829, encouraged by his teacher CF Zelter (lieder composer), Mendelssohn conducted parts of J.S. Bach’s St. Matthew Passion
    • unpublished, unknown since 1750
    • great success started the “Bach Revival”
  29. Beyreuth
    Wagner’s ideals realized at Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Festival Playhouse), modeled on Greek amphitheater; only Wagner works performed there; funded by King Ludwig of Bavaria (“Mad”)
  30. Bel Canto
    • beautiful singing
    • Rossini’s Barber of Seville illustrates typical bel canto traits
    • Bellini’s Norma: this bel canto cavatina style influenced Chopin’s nocturnes
  31. “Best Suspension Ever”
    • Chopin’s Nocturne in Db Major, Op. 27, no.2
    • climax = the best suspension ever
  32. Cabaletta
    faster, more rhythmic, bravura; uses “Rossini crescendo”= same figure repeated with increasing volume
  33. Caecilian Movement
    Bruckner illustrates principles of Caecilian Movement


    • named for patron saint of music
    • centered in German speaking lands
    • sought to restore Catholic Church’s music to its status during Renaissance
    • emulates Renaissance polyphony: a capela, textual clarity through homophony and light imitation, occasionally modal
    • some “word painting”; obediens = imitation; mortem = low range dissonance
    • but highly chromatic dissonances unprepared internal cadences far removed from tonic
  34. Cavatina
    “drawn” from recitative, but voice not speech-like (melodic even virtuosic); still punctuated by orchestral chords
  35. Couplet and Refrain
    Bizet’s Carmen: set form: couplet and refain (aaB aaB) in habanera
  36. Dies Irae
    • day of wrath
    • Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique:
    • * Mvmt. 5, Dream of Witches' Sabbath
    • o Grotesque version of i.f. combined with dies irae (day of wrath)

    Plainchant from requiem mass
  37. Etude
    • Chopin’s “Un Sospiro” (A Sigh), from 3 concert etudes (study pieces)
    • 19th century etudes often infused with “poetic” EMA’s
  38. Exoticism
    Bizet’s Carmen: illustrates EXOTICISM (depiction of foreign cultures, esp. popular in France), here Spanish setting, gypsy “culture)
  39. Extramusical Associations
    character pieces sometimes have extra-musical associations

    in Schumann’s Symphony No. 3 in Eb Major, Op. 97 (“Rhenish”): EMAs: “Rhenish” = Rhine River in Germany
  40. Habanera
    habanera = Cuban dance, slow duple meter, repeatted dotted rhythm

    Bizet’s Carmen
  41. Idee Fixe
    see Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique
  42. “Kuchka” = Mighty Handful or Might 5
    (5 composeres who rejected Western ties)


    Leader: Mily Balakirev (1837-1910)

    • professionally trained in Moscow
    • but mistrusted systematic musical education
    • instead, championed nationalism
    • in politics : desire to promote autonomy of national, regional, or ethnic group
    • in music : adopt language, speech rhythms, folk materials/subjects, for operas/program music

    • Borodin (MD and chemist)
    • Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov (navy)
    • Modest Musorgsky

    • born Karevo (army, civil service)
    • largely self-taught
    • little recognition during lifetime
    • died of acute alcoholism
    • now admired for unorthodox, non-westernized musical language
  43. League of David
    some of Schumann’s reviews take the form of conversations among imaginary characters

    • Florestan = extroverted, impulsive side of RS
    • Eusebius = introverted, dreamy side of RS
    • Maestro Raro = pedantic (Wieck)
    • These and other characters belonged to a “League of David” who fought against the

    • Philistines = those with narrow, conventional. views, esp. on culture and aesthetics (philosophy of art)
    • RS also depicted these “characters” in some of his piano “pieces” of the 1830s
  44. Melodrama
    Weber’s Der Freischutz (The Free Shooter)

    Wolf’s Glen Scene

    • where devil (Samiel) appears to mortals
    • tonal relations (C-F#) = tritone
    • melodrama (dialogue spoken against a musical background)
    • Eerie orchestration (tremolos, extreme ranges, echoes)
  45. Mimetic Accompaniment
    Schubert’s Der Lindenbaum and Gretchen am Spinnrade
  46. Leitmotif
    recurring theme
  47. Motto
    a short preface in same tempo as main sonata form; returns at important points in form

    Schubert’s Symphony No. 8 in B minor (“Unfinished”) begins with motto
  48. Nationalism
    Kuchka or Mighty 5 championed nationalism
  49. Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik (The New Journal for Music)
    RS the became music critic and composer

    • co-founded the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik (The New Journal for Music)
    • 19th century’s leading music periodical
    • focused on promoting new music and new composers, not judging performances
    • some of RS’s reviews take the form of conversations among imaginary characters

    • Florestan = extroverted, impulsive side of RS
    • Eusebius = introverted, dreamy side of RS
    • Maestro Raro = pedantic (Wieck)
    • These and other characters belonged to a “League of David” who fought against the

    • Philistines = those with narrow, conventional. views, esp. on culture and aesthetics (philosophy of art)
    • RS also depicted these “characters” in some of his piano “pieces” of the 1830s
  50. Night of Seven Stars
    • “Nights of 7 Stars” - 7 important, virtuosic roles
    • all 7 heard in Act 2 Oath Scene


    Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots
  51. Nocturne
    night piece
  52. Non-westernized musical language
    Musorgsky now admired for unorthodox, non-westernized musical language
  53. Numbers opera
    see handout
  54. Off tonic beginning
    Schubert’s Nahe des Geliebten (Heaness of the Beloved)
  55. Philistines
    those with narrow, conventional. views, esp. on culture and aesthetics (philosophy of art)
  56. Long piano postlude
    a characteristic of Schumann’s In wunderschonen Monat Mai (In the wonderful month of May)
  57. Polonaise
    aristocratic Polish dance in triple meter

    choreographic accents on beats 1 & 3
  58. Program Music
    • **Instrumental** music is endowed with literary or pictorial associations (something "outside" music)
    • Composers typically provide a text (a program) to explain extra musical associations
  59. Risorgimento
    political movement (1814-70) that soght to free Italian city-states from oppressive foreign rule and unify them under on Italian king
  60. Rubato
    flexible tempo modification for which Chopin was greatly admired
  61. Spoken Dialogue
    recits + after GB’s death

    Bizet’s Carmen
  62. Spoken DIalogue
    Bizet’s Carmen was written with spoken dialogue
  63. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
    • the setting of Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots
    • 3,000+ killed
  64. Triumphant Scherzo
    • in Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 (Pathetique)
    • 3rd movement = triumphant scherzo before tragedy


    • combines scherzo figuration with march
    • roughly a “sonata form without development”
  65. Wolf’s Glen Scene
    in Weber’s Der Freischutz (The Free Shooter)


    • where devil (Samiel) appears to mortals
    • tonal relations (C-F#) = tritone
    • melodrama (dialogue spoken against a musical background)
    • Eerie orchestration (tremolos, extreme ranges, echoes)
  66. Year of Song
    but in 1840-41, Schumann immersed in love poetry

    he wrote 170+ lieder = RS’s “Year of Song”

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